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LSHTM 



0011364223 




HEALTHY HOME. 



A 

Healthy Home. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



BY 

FRANCIS VACHER, 

COUNTY MED. OFFICER FOR CHESHIRE, AUTHOR OF " THE FOOD 
inspector's handbook," "DEFECTS IN PLUMBING AND 
DRAINAGE WORK," "DANGEROUS INFECTIOUS 
DISEASES," ETC. ETC. 



SECOND EDITION. 



PRICE TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 

lEnn&on : 

THE]SANITARY PUBLISHING CO., Ltd., 5, Fetter Lane, 
Fleet Street, E.C. 



Itonbon : 

P1*NTED BY GEORGE REVEIRS, 4 AND 5, GRAYSTOKE PLACE 
FETTER LANE, E.G. 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. 



In the course of recent lectures given at several 
provincial towns, on the sanitary requirements of a modern 
dwelling-house and allied topics, I could not fail to notice 
the keen interest taken by many in all matters relating to 
the healthiness of the home. The questions put to me 
after the lecture hour showed sometimes much intelligence 
and sometimes deficiency in elementary knowledge, but 
■always that a strong desire for further information had 
been awakened. Yet when asked to refer the inquirers 
to a convenient handbook, giving the necessary particulars 
■about a healthy house, and how to maintain it 
healthy, I was unable to do so. My own little 
book on Sanitary Dejects in Tlunibing and Drainage 
Work was thought too technical, other works suggested 
■were too large, while the popular manuals on hygiene, 
though full of useful instruction, did not specially treat 
of healthy houses. 

" Supposing," says an inquirer, " one of us is thinking 
■of building a house for himself, he would want to know 
a little about bricks and mortar, wood and stone, a little 
about site, foundation, and construction — where is such 
information to be got, in perfectly intelligible language ?" 
•" Or if," says another, " one were merely moving into a 
ready-built house, one would wish to be able to judge 
if it were likely to prove dry and airy, warm and free 

A 2 



vi 

from nuisance— what little book can I rely on to guide 
my judgment?" A third suggests that the house he 
occupies is being overhauled, and asks how he is to 
post himself up in sanitary matters so as to know that 
this is being done efficiently, and that the work 
recommended when carried out will really make the 
premises healthy. 

Of course the answer to questions of this nature is 
that too much must not be expected from a little superficial 
reading, and no book, big or little, will make a man ar» 
expert. 

An amateur cannot train himself to be a competent 
clerk of the works when building is going on, or to 
amend a sanitary authority's specification of alterations, 
required. Still it did appear to me that those who had 
taken the trouble to attend sanitary lectures and voluntarily- 
submitted themselves for examination on the subjects 
taught, had given proof of their interest in hygiene, and 
that the request for a brief digest of what I and others 
had told them was not unreasonable. 

Thus the following papers, having the unpretending 
title, " A Healthy Home," have come to be written. 
They are intended for all who are concerned to read 
them — landlords, householders, and lodgers ; women as 
well as men. No previous knowledge of the matters 
referred to is assumed, the simplest language is used 
throughout, and no scientific or technical term is employed 
without explanation. 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. 



The demand for a Second Edition of this little book 
is some indication that it has met a need. In particular, 
the information given seems to have been appreciated by 
householders and those about to become householders, 
and also by young men and women who are commencing 
the study of elementary hygiene. 

The work has been very carefully read through for 
the press, and such alterations and additions as appeared 
desirable have been made. It is hoped that the second 
edition will prove up to date in the matters dealt with, 
and trustworthy and helpful to those consulting it. 

As regards the illustrations, two of those in the first 
edition have been replaced by others, giving further 
detail, and fourteen additional illustrations have been 
inserted. The illustrations now number thirty-seven. 

Birkenhead, 

March ^ 1901. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 
Introductory. 

P A 

The Health of the Individual and Family— How shall 
they be Housed Wholesomely ?— A Question for 
all— Principles and Practice— Subdivision of 
Subject 



CHAPTER II. 

Site. Soil. Aspect. 

Conditions Required as regards Site— Temperature : 
How Modified— Ground Temperature— Surface 
Soil and Subsoil— Constituents of Soil— Geologi- 
cal Formations and their Relations to Healthi- 
ness — Ground Water and Moisture — Rainfall : 
How Disposed of— Ground Air — " Made Land " 
Ground Air Drawn into House— Summary of 
Desiderata as regards Site — Diseases connected 
with Ground Water — Choice of Asi^ect 



CHAPTER III. 

Building Materials. 

Brick — The Earth Used — Preparing the Earth — 
Moulding and Drying — Burning : Kilns and 
Clamps — Colour of Brick — Facing Bricks and 



ix 

PAGE 

Cutters — Heavy Brick — Light Brick — Hollow 
Brick — Ventilating Brick — Fire-brick — Brick- 
making by Machinery — Sound Bricks — Stone — 
Sandstone — Limestone — Magnesian Limestone 
— Oolite — " Freestone " — Mortar — Lime — 
Cement — Tiles — Moulding and Drying — Burning 
—Terra-cotta— Slates — Tests of Quality — Wood 
■ — Pine and Hard Woods — Characteristics of 
Good Timber—" Sap " and " Heart ' 13 

CHAPTER IV. 

Construction. 

T( undat'ons — exploratory Borings — Making a Solid 
Foundation — "Footings" — Concrete in Base- 
n ent — Walls — Damp-course — Hollow Basement 
Walls or Areas — Damp-proof Coating — Brick- 
setting — Bond — Flues — House Walls in Exposed 
Places — Regulations as to Thickness of Walls — 
Brick Backing to Stone— Natural Bed of Stone 
Concrete Walls— Half Timber Walls— Floors in 
Basement — Size of Floor Joists — " Trimmers " — 
Laying Floor Boards— Tongued and Grooved 
Flooring— Skirting— Construction of Staircase — 
Casement and Sash Windows — Ventilating 
Boards for Sash Windows — Amount of Window 
Space required— Construction of Doors— Size of 
Doors— Roofing— Inclination of Roof— Con- 
struction of Roof— Slating — Tiling — Metal 
Covered Flats — Flashing — Rain-pipes and 
•Gutters— Minimum Height of Chimneys 28 



X 



CHAPTER V. ^^^^ 
I')ESIGN AND General Arrangement. 
Architectural Drawings-Plans, Sections, and Eleva- 
tions-Details, &c, to be shown-Labourers' 
Cottages— Dwelling-houses for Clerks and Fore- 
men—Minimum Size of Rooms, &c.-Small 
Villa Residences— Houses rented at ^^50 to 
^125 a year— Dining-room— Drawing-room- 
Library— Extra room— Bed-rooms— Nurseries- 
Kitchen — Scullery — Laundry — Pantry — Larder 
and Store-room— Linen-room— Cellars 4^ 



CHAPTER VL 
Warming, Lighting, and Ventilation. 
Temperature required Indoors— Heat obtained by 
Combustion— The Open Grate, the Close Stove, 
and the Gas-stove — Radiation, Convection, and 
Conduction— Grate to have Supply of External 
Air— Flue and Draught— How to prevent Down- 
draught— Defecis of the Open Grate— Utilising 
the Back Heat— Galton's Grate— The "Low- 
pressure" and "High -pressure" Systems of 
Heating by Hot Water— Steam— Lighting — 
Relative Cost of Illuminants — Electric Lighting 
— Incandescent Electric Lamp— Hydrocarbons 
—Gas— The Meter— Water in the Pipes— Gas- 
leaking — Argand, Batwing, and Fishtail Burners 
— Governors for Regulating Pressure — Treatment 
of Dry Air— The "Globe" Light— Gas-light fed 
by External Air — Ventilation — Impurities in Air 
from Respiration, Sec. — Amount of Fresh Air 



PAGET. 

required — Minimum Air-space to be allowed an 
adult— Forces effecting Natural Ventilation — 
Sherringham Valves and Tobin's Tubes — Air 
admitted may need Filtering — Outlets — 
Dr. Arnott's Valves — Mackinnel's Ventilators — 
Ventilation of Hall and Staircase-well 64. 

CHAPTER Vn. 
Hot and Cold Water. 

Power of Selection Limited — Sources of Supply — 
Rain Water — River Water— Spring Water- 
Shallow and Deep Wells — Pollution in Transit — 
Mineral and Organic — Cisterns, their Position, 
Construction, and Size — Expansion and Contrac- 
tion of Water — The Ball-tap — Filtering — Filters 
and Cleansing — Hardness, Temporary and Per- 
manent — Softening Hard Water— Service Pipes 
— Danger from Lead Pipes — Substitutes for Lead 
Pipes — Taps from Mains to be so Marked — 
Hot-water Service — Arrangements of Pipes ... 8j- 

CHAPTER VHL 

Sanitary Requisites. 

Drainage — House-drains — Minimum Fall — Drains 
beneath Buildings — Drain-joints — Testing the 
House-drains — Disconnection of House-drains 
from Sewers— Fresh-air Inlet — Disposal of Rain- 
water — Soil-pipe — Ventilator for Soil-pipe — 
" Containers " and " D Traps " condemned — 
Simplest form of Closet— The Valve Closet — 



XII 



PAGE 



^ oxing-in objectionable-Separate Service Cisterns 
—Baths and Lavatories— Scullery and Pantry 
■Sinks— Grease Traps— Gully Traps ... . 



CHAPTER IX. 

Decoration and Furniture. 

Decoration of Room-walls- Panelling-Colouring in 
Oil and Distemper— Hanging with Fabrics- 
Paper-hangings— Design and Colour— Varnished 
Papers— Poisonous Papers— Flock Papers— Putrid 
Paste and Size— Floors— Parquetry, Floor-cloths, 
and Mattings— Carpets and Rugs— Ceilings- 
Cornices and " Centres "—Ceiling Papers— Furni- 
ture for Use rather than Ornament— Rooms not 
to contain too much— Pictures— Furniture re- 
quired for Hall, Living-rooms, and Bedrooms- 
Curtains 



CHAPTER X. 

Stables, Cowhouses, &c. 

:Stable-space required for each Horse— Lighting and 
Ventilation— Walls, Flooring, and Drainage- 
Fittings — Coach-house, Harness-rcom, &c. — 
Washing-yard— Cow-house— Space required for 
each Cow— Arrangement in large Cow-houses — 
Drainage — Lighting, Ventilation, &c. — Dairy and 
Scullery — Piggery — Space required for Swine — 
Fowl-house — Pigeon-cote 123 



Xlll 

page: 

CHAPTER XI. 

How TO Keep the House Clean. 

Methodical Supervision— Where Dirt comes from — 
Cleaning Bedrooms— Morning Airing— Dusting- 
Cleaning Sitting-rooms — Sweeping — Cleaning 
Hall, Passages, Staircase, &c.— Cleaning Kitchen 
and Scullery — Cleaning Saucepans, Knives and 
Forks, &c. — Blackbeetles — Cleaning Larder, 
Cellars, &c.— Spring Cleaning 129. 

CHAPTER XH. 
Obligations of Householder and Sanitary 

AUTHOr.ITY. 

Rates and Taxes — Gross Value and Rateable Value — 
Poor Rates, Boro' Rates, &c. — Gas and Water 
Rates — Land Tax and Property Tax — Landlord 
and Tenant — Taking a House — Warranty — 
Examination by Sanitary Expert — Conditions of 
Tenancy — Leases — Yearly Tenancies — -Fixtures — 
Some Provisions of the Public Health Act — Right 
of Drainage into Public Sewers — House Drains — 
Drains, &c., to be properly kept — Examination of 
Drains, &c. — Removal of Refuse — Quine's House- 
refuse Receptacle — Filthy Houses to be Purified, 
&c. — Abatement of Nuisances i39» 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



'Fia. 

1. Healthy and unhealthy site 

2. Ventilating bricks 

3- " Sap " and " heart " in wood 

4- Concrete foundation and "footings" 

5. Hollow or cavity wall 

■6. Area round house 

7. Brick wall in English bond 

8- „ Flemish , 

9. Stone wall backed with brickwork 
:o. Ends of joists cushioned on wood plates resting 

on stone 

1. Tongued and grooved flooring 

2. Hinckes-Bird's plan of window ventilation 

3. Slate roof, showing "lap " ... 

4. Labourer's cottage : Plan 

5- )) !, Section 

6' )) ,j Elevation 

7. Small dwelling-house : Plan 

8. „ ,, Section 

9- » ), Elevation 

o. Section of a room with ventilating grate and 

warm air flue, showing circulation of air ... 

r. Plan of Galton's grate 

2. Elevation of Galton's grate 



XV 

TtG. PAGE 

23. An arrangement of hot-water pipes and coils for 

heating two rooms 70 

2 \.. Incandescent electric lamp 73 

25. Fishtail and batwing gas-burners 76 

26. Gas-burner in a globe entirely cut off from the 

room 78 

27. Sherringham's ventilator 83 

28. Tobin's tube, in section 84 

29. Dr. Arnott's valve 85 

30. Mackinnel's ventilator 85 

31. Arrangement of hot-water service 98 

32. Disconnecting chamber between house-drain and 

public sewer: Section 104 

33. Disconnecting chamber between house-drain and 

public sewer : Plan 105 

34. Disconnecting trap between house and sewer ... 105 

35. Stone-ware grease trap no 

36. Improved gully-trap 1 1 1 

37. Quine's house-refuse receptacle 148 



Drainage, Sewage Disposal 
Water Supply. 



HOUSE=HUNTERS 

Should employ The Sanitation Co. to ascertain that the house 
of their choice is sanitary, and thus prevent illness and guard 
gainst possible outlay for the reconstruction of the drainage. 

H0U5E=0WNERS 

Should employ The Sanitatio.n Co. to periodically test th- 
drains. A stitch in time saves nine. The Company's certificate 
of sanitary soundness is an excellent house-letting agent. 

HOUSE=HOLDERS 

Should employ The Sanitation Co. to periodically clean and 
test the sanitary arrangements of their dwellings, and thus maintain 
their houses in a wholesome condition. The Company's sanitary 
certificate insures them against, and compensates them for, certain 
pathogenic diseases, howsoever contracted. 

THE SANITATION CO. 

Acts entirely in the interests of its clients. It does not carry crt 
structural works, and has no interest in patents or plumbing cr 
other trading firms. 



Head Office : 

14, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 



FEES & PROSPECTUS ON APPLICATION. 



Liverpool Branch : Manchester Branch : 

3, COOK STREET, 40, SOUTH KING STREET. 



HiHHHiHiiiiiiiiiH 



A HEALT 




HOME, 



CHAPTER I. 
Introductory. 

The health of the individual and family : how shall they be housed 
wholesomely ? — A question for all — Principles and practice — • 
Subdivision of subject. 

A LATE Professor in the University of Edinburgh was in 
the habit of introducing the subject on which he lectured 
to his class by saying that the Chair of Clinical Medicine 
was, as it were, the sun-chair of the faculty, round which 
all the other chairs might be represented as revolving. 
Hygiene, regarded as a study or a science, includes many 
studies and portions of many sciences ; but the subject of 
■subjects towards which all that it includes converges is the 
health of the individual and the family. 

What environment shall the individual and family have ? 
or, in other words, how shall they be housed wholesomely ? 
is the constant question presented to the medical officer of 
health for solution, the sun-question round which most of 
the inquiries he has to conduct, and the work he has to 
•control, may be said to revolve. Hygiene, in the words of 
Dr. Parkes, aims at rendering growth more perfect, decay 
less rapid, life more vigorous, and death more remote. It 
is surely an object of personal interest to all ; and its sun- 
question— What goes to make the healthy home ?— is not 
for medical officers of health and experts only, but for all. 

B 



V 



The principles which should guide one in determining 
the requirements of a healthy dwelling-house are scarcely in 
dispute. It is admitted that the house should be built in a 
thorough workmanlike manner, of sound material, on a 
clean foundation, that it should be well aired and dry, well 
lighted and warmed, that it should have a pure water 
supply, conveniences for bathing, washing and cooking, that 
efficient sanitary accommodation should be provided, and 
last, not least, that all drains should be external to the 
house, and all direct connection therewith should be broken. 
However, general principles alone are not a sufficient guide, 
and do not satisfactorily answer the inquiry— What con- 
stitutes a healthy home ? It is necessary to advance from 
principles to practice, and practice implies entering into 
what may appear rather minute particulars, and specifying 
details as to which there is not the same unanimity of 
opinion. The best way of giving effect to principles, in this 
as in other matters, has been taught by experience, and 
practice varies with the experience ; still, practice in most 
details, as regards the building of a healthy house, is suffi- 
ciently in agreement to admit of its being studied with 
profit by any intelligent man or woman. 

It is proposed, therefore, to answer the question — What 
constitutes a healthy home? — by explaining what would 
appear to be the approved practice : — 

(1) In respect of the selection of site (a) the necessity of 
its being clean, and (^) the importance of avoiding, or, 
efficiently draining, soils in which the ground water is high, 
the distribution of the disease known as consumption being 
influenced by the wetness of the ground on which people 
live. 

(2) In respect of the selection and preparation of materials 
ordinarily used in house-building. 



3 



(3) In respect of construction. 

(4) In respect of the. planning and general arrangement 

of the house. 

(5) In respect of warming, lighting, and ventilation 

(6) In respect of hot and cold water service. 

(7) In respect of the house drains and so-called sanitary 
fittings. 

(8) In respect of decoration and furniture. 

(9) In respect of stables, cow-house, &c. 

(10) In respect of keeping the house clean. 

It is proposed to devote a chapter to each of these topics, 
and to conclude with a chapter on the obligations of the 
householder, and (a matter on which every householder 
should be well informed) the duties of the local sanitary 
authority. 



B 2 



CHAPTER II. 



Site. Soil. Aspect. 

Conditions required as regards site— Temperature : how modified— 
Ground temperature — Surface soil and subsoil— Constituents 
of soil— Geological formations and their relations to healthi- 
ness—Ground water and moisture— Rainfall : how disposed 
of— Ground air— "Made land "—Ground air drawn into 
house— Summary of desiderata as regards site— Diseases 
connected with ground water — Choice of aspect. 

A PRIMARY necessity of the really healthy home is that it 
shall occupy a healthy site — a site where the air is pure, the 
surface soil and subsoil clean, and where wholesome water 
is obtainable. The healthiness of a site will depend upon 
its nature, position, and environment. It should be fairly 
dry, within reach of the sun, not unduly exposed to wind 
and rain, and any defects it may have should be limited to 
those which art can remedy. 

Temperature. — As climate determines the relative suita- 
bility of various districts for the support of man, and the 
most important factor in the determination is the tempera- 
ture of the air, I propose to consider first what is to be 
sought for as regards temperature in choosing a site. It is 
not a high temperature that is desirable, even for the weakly 
and for convalescents, and certainly not a low temperature, 
but an equable, limited temperature, with slight yearly and 
diurnal variations. Other things being equal, the healthy 
locality is that in which there is no excessive summer heat 
and no extreme winter cold. 

Any mean temperature coming within 40 degrees and 
60 degrees Fah. may be considered temperate. A mean 



of from 47 degrees to 50 degrees Fah. is probably best 
suited to English people. The mean temperature of a place 
is lowered nearly i degree Fah. for each degree of latitude 
added. Of course, also, the temperature decreases with the 
altitude, each 300 feet above the sea level lowering it about 
I degree Fah. Nearness to the sea, as is well known, tempers 
the air, preventing at least extreme cold. It may further be 
noticed that a valley is a less satisfactory site than a hill ; not 
merely because it gets less sun and air, but because air 
cooled through contact with the ground on the hillside flows 
down the slope, displacing the air in the valley. 

The daily temperature of the air does not affect the 
ground to a greater extent than three or four feet, and though in 
temperate climates the line of uniform yearly temperature is 
from 57 to 99 feet below the surface, for practical purposes 
the temperature at eight feet from the surface may be said to 
be fixed all the year round. Ordinary earth allows the sun's 
heat to pass rapidly downwards, and in varying degree chalk 
and clay and rock are fair conductors of heat. Sand, on 
the other hand, is a bad conductor, and retains heat. 
Generally, soils cool more rapidly than they heat. A 
covering of grass greatly decreases the heat -absorbing power 
of soils, and makes radiation therefrom more rapid. 

Soil, in its large sense, includes all portions of the crust 
of the earth which can in any way affect health. For 
convenience it is referred to as surface-soil and subsoil, but 
there is no defining where the one begins and the other 
ends. Soil consists of mineral, vegetable, and sometimes 
animal substances. The vegetable matter may occur as 
deposits of considerable thickness, as in submerged forests, 
or the debris from the decay of plants may be washed into 
the soil, and penetrate to great depths. That there is some 
animal matter in most surface-soils goes without saying, and 



6 



there are traces of it m all but the oldest rocks. What is 
most prejudicial to the healthiness of a soil to be used for a 
building site is the animal and vegetable refuse thrown out 
in the neighbourhood of habitations, the soakage from 
which may pollute a considerable thickness of earth. 

The mineral matters of which the soil consists are very 
numerous. The most important are the compounds of 
silicon, aluminium, calcium, iron, carbon, chlorine, phos- 
phorus, potassium, and sodium. 

It has been remarked that, in examining the constituents 
of the soil round a house, or of a building site, local condi- 
tions are of more importance than the geological formations. 
Still, the geological formation has much to do with the 
healthiness of a site. According to Dr. Parkes, the 
following formations are relatively healthy as building sites 
in the order given : — 

(1) Primitive rocks, clay slate, and millstone grit (a hard 
sandstone used for millstones). 

(2) Gravel and loose sands with permeable subsoils. 

(3) Sandstones. 

(4) Limestones. 

(5) Sands with impermeable subsoils. 

As regards chalk, it is a healthy soil when pure. If 
marly, or clayey, it becomes impermeable, and is un- 
healthy. 

Clays, marls, and alluvial soils are, as a rule, unhealthy. 
They often contain vegetable impurities, and water neither 
runs off nor through them. Loam sands coated over with 
a film of vegetable matter, or held together by a vegetable 
sediment, or charged with water, may make very unhealthy 
sites. 

Limestones vary much in their relative healthiness. The 
hard "oolite" (composed of small rounded grains, com- 



7 

pact or crystalline) is best, and magnesian limestone is 
worst. 

Primitive rocks are liable to become disintegrated, and 
then should be looked on with suspicion. 

Ground Water.— The healthiness or unhealthiness of a 
soil used, or to be used, as a building site depends largely 
upon its aeration and moisture and ground water. Water 
present with air is moisture only. When all the interstices 
are filled with water, so that, except so far as it is separated 
by solid portions of soil, there is a continuous sheet of 
water, ground water is said to be present. The moisture of 
the soil is derived from rain and ground water, and the 
amount depends on the supply and the power of the soil to 
absorb and retain water. Power to absorb water varies 
much : thus earth will take up from 40 to 60 per cent, and 
chalk about 15 per cent. 

The ground water is at different depths below the surface 
— it may be two feet, it may be hundreds of feet. This 
depends on what outflow there is, and on the permeability 
of the soil, but most of all on the incidence of the rainfall. 
Rainfalls at a great distance off, and long after date, will 
affect the level of the ground water. This water is always 
flowing as the land inclines, and generally toward the river 
or the sea, but the rate of flow is slow — often only a few 
feet daily. Some change in level is always taking place. 

The rainfall varies in amount and frequency, and 
rate of fall. Thus, while the average annual rainfall 
in England is 32 inches in some localities (in the Lake 
district) it is upwards of 175 inches a year, and in 
others (in the Eastern Counties) as low as 15 inches a 
year. Occasionally, in a limited area, as much as 5 inches 
of rain have fallen in a single hour. The time of year 
in which the rain falls is also a point of great sanitary 



importance, and the quality of the soil and its capacity for 
heat and extent and nature of the vegetation'coterin^^^ 
t The greatest percolation takes place when the soil is 

thelTnt h "T" " '''''''' P--l-tion, 

the rainfall being all evaporated or absorbed by vegetation 
How the rainwater is disposed of depends much on the 
nature of the soil. Thus, in this country the evaporation 
trom sand is 17 per cent, percolation through it 8^ per 
cent. ; while, with clay and loam, the evaporation is 7, per 
cent, and percolation 27 per cent As long as there is 
water sufficiently near the surface of the soil to keep it 
moist by attraction, evaporation will continue. But this 
power of capillary attraction varies much : thus a bed of 
sand will be quite dry about 12 inches above the point 
where water is standing in it. Again, the capacity of soils 
to retain moisture varies greatly. Sandstone rock will hold 
8 per cent of its weight when dry, sand 17 per cent 
Oxford clay 30 per cent., and London clay 50 per cent! 
The importance of the question of ground water and its 
direct connection with unhealthiness of site are largely due 
to the level of water in the subsoil regulating the amount of 
ground air, its quality and humidity. Ground water is not 
itself necessarily dangerous. 

Air finds its way into the interstices of the ground only 
where water is not, and ground permeated with fairly dry 
air is the only healthy ground on which to build. Ground 
air is not stagnant, but always kept in motion by the wind 
and air pressure and varying temperature. If the ground 
water be at a permanent level of five feet or less from the 
surface, the ground air is cold and damp, and the site is 
unhealthy. If the water level fluctuates considerably it is 
yet^ more unhealthy, especially when the fluctuations are 
rapid. A permanently low water level of about 15 feet 



9 



may be termed healthy. Where this does not exist it may 
often be obtained by draining, and when the ground water 
cannot be maintained permanently at a low level it should 
be kept at a nearly even level. 

It is scarcely necessary to point out that the soil to be 
used as the site of a house should be clean as well as fairly 
dry. The ground must not be fouled in any way, as by 
buried animal or vegetable refuse, or the ground air will be 
charged with the products of decay or putrefaction, and the 
freer the movements of the air the more rapid will be the 
decay. Yet so-called " made land " — land brought up to 
the required level with the contents of ashpits and midden- 
steads — has been frequently used as a site for dwelling- 
houses. It has been stated that such land cleanses itselt 
by a process of slow combustion in from twelve to twenty 
years, but there is no proof of this, and excellent reason for 
disbelieving it. As there is nearly always carbonic acid in 
the ground, its presence in ground air is no proof of a foul 
site. 

The evil effects of a damp or unclean site are increased 
in the winter, when the air in the house is so much warmer 
than the air outside. The ground air is drawn into the 
house, and no foundation provided (even though it be 
concrete) is sufficiently impermeable to prevent this. 

To sum up as regards choice of site, what should be 
sought for is as follows : — 

(i) A locality with an equable temperature, the mean 
being rather below 50 degrees Fah. than above. 

{2) A fairly elevated site sheltered from the north and 
east, the shelter not being near enough to cause stagnation 
and humidity of air. The ground immediately round the 
house should slope from it on all sides. 

(3) The site should have a good fall for drainage. 



10 



sufficient drainage outlets should be available, and, except 
in rare instances, the site should be under-drained. 

(4) A hard rock site, or a gravelly or sandy boil, porous 
enough to admit air freely, and a permeable subsoil. 

(5) Any ground water should be at least 12 or 15 feet 
from the surface, and the level should not be subject to 
considerable or rapid fluctuations. 

(6) Whatever the surface soil and subsoil, they should be 
dean, not fouled with sewage or decomposing refuse. The 
best sites available being often most pervious, are most 
easily polluted. 

(7) There should be nothing contiguous to cause an 
effluvium nuisance. The irrigation of land adjoining may 
make a site less healthy, but this would probably be due to 
the irrigation being imperfectly carried out. Bringing 
adjoining land under cultivation often improves the healthi- 
ness of a site. 

(8) If there be higher ground contiguous, the drainage 
water from it should be cut off. 

Finally, remember that a site in a valley is nearly always 
damp and cold and unhealthy, and that any shut-in position 
is bad. Of building on such a site, wrote Lord Bacon : 
" He that builds a fine house upon an ill site, committeth 
himself to prison." 

The little cut — Fig. i — which has been borrowed from 
Galton's " Observations on the Construction of Healthy 
Dwellings," shows a healthy and unhealthy building site. 
It may serve to emphasise a portion of what has just been 
said as to sites and soils. 

The diseases which are connected with ground water and 
moisture are " colds," neuralgia, and rheumatism, as well as 
phthisis and ague. Deep drainage, lowering the level of the 
ground water a few feet, has in many instances reduced the 



1 1 

disease and mortality in a district enormously, and made an 
unhealthy area healthy. The drainage of land is effected by 
means of unglazed earthenware pipes laid at the required 
depths, broken stone or pebbles being placed on the top to 
act as strainers and prevent the pipes being choked with 
earth. They should admit air freely, and not deliver into a 
house drain, sewer, or cesspool, but into a watercourse. 

Aspect, it may be thought, is a matter of no great 
importance if the house be detached, as in the course of the 
■ day most of the rooms will get the sun in turn. Still, houses 




Fig. I. 



facing the south and west are usually preferred to those 
facing north and east, and, other things being equal, let more 
readily. It may often happen, too, that there is no choice 
as to aspect, the house has to face in a given direction ; but 
then the aspect of each apartment has to be considered. 
If there be a view at all interesting, the front windows will 
probably look in that direction, and if the site be on a slope 
the front of the house will face down the slope. 

Planning that the sides of a house face the four points of 
the compass is to be avoided, as it would make two sides 
■of the house cold and almost sunless. The breakfast-room 



12 



or morning-room may be conveniently placed on the S.E.^ 
the dining-room (which is the breakfast-room in most houses) 
also S.E. The library is, I think, best placed on the N.E. 
or N.W. The most suitable outlook for drawing-room and 
boudoir is probably the S.W., while the kitchen, scullery, 
larder, &c., should look to the N.E. Bedrooms may look, 
all ways. The night nursery I should prefer to look S.E.^. 
and the day nursery S., S.W., or W., perhaps the latter is 
better. Box rooms, lumber closets, and vacant rooms may 
be on the N.E. side. 



CHAPTER III. 



Building Materials. 

Brick — The earth used — Preparing the earth — Moulding and drying 
— Burning : Kilns and clamps — Colour of brick — Facing 
bricks and cutters — Heavy brick — Light brick — Hollow brick 
— Ventilating brick— Firebrick — Brickmaking by machinery 
— Sound bricks — Stone — Sandstone — Limestone — Magnesian 
limestone — Oolite — " Freestone " — Mortar — Lime — Cement 
— Tiles — Moulding and drying — Burning — Terra-cotta — 
Slates — Tests of quality — ^Wood — Pine and hard woods — 
Characteristics of good timber — """Sap" and "heart." 

It is fully as necessary that a house should be built of 
sound materials as that it should have a clean healthy site. 
The nature of the materials to be used is often a question 
of taste and expediency. As far as possible they should 
be such as are obtainable in the vicinity, or quite needless 
expense will be incurred. In any case they should be good 
of their kind. 

Everyone proposing to build or rent a house, and indeed 
every householder, should have some general information 
as regards building materials. Certainly he will find a little 
knowledge of such things useful. It is proposed, therefore, 
in the present chapter to treat, necessarily very briefly, of 
the materials ordinarily used for building dwelling-houses in 
this country, that is to say, brick, stone, mortar, cement, 
tile, slate, and wood. 

Bricks. 

The Earths used.— There are three kinds of argillaceous 
earth ordinarily used for brickmaking. These are pure 
clays (composed chiefly of alumina and silica, but containing 



14 



also a little lime, iron, &c.), marls (which are earths con- 
taining a considerable proportion of lime), and loams 
(which are light sandy clays) ; but it is seldom that earths 
are suited for use as found. Pure clays require the 
admixture of sand or loam, &c., while, marls and loams need 
the addition of lime to flux and bind the earth. Even 
when the brick-clay will work up well as found, the differ- 
ence in two beds of it in the same field may be so great, it 
is advisable to mix them to get uniformity in size and 
colour. 

Preparing the earths.— Though the whole process of 
brickmaking now often occupies but a few weeks from the 
first turning of the clay, this is not the approved way. The 
brick-earth should be uncovered and dug and heaped up in 
the autumn, and left through the winter for the frosts to 
break it up. This is called weathering. In the spring, the 
earth is turned over, freed from stones, and tempered by 
spade labour or in a pugmill, sufficient water being added 
to make it plastic. A pugmill is a wooden tub having an 
upright revolving shaft passing through its centre, to which 
are keyed a number of knives, which by their motion cut 
and knead the clay, and force it through the mill, whence it 
issues fit for the moulder's use. AVhen the brick-earth 
contains bits of limestone or ironstone it requires grinding 
with iron rollers. 

Moulding and drying. — The process of moulding consists 
in dashing the tempered clay into the mould with enough 
force to fill it (the mould being a box without top or 
bottom, placed upon a board), after which the superfluous 
clay is taken off with a "strike." The mould is made of 
brass or wood and iron, and wetted or sanded from time 
to time to prevent the clay adhering. The bricks are then 
taken to the drying floor, spread out and sprinkled with 



15 

sand, and when sufficiently hard to handle without 
injury are built up in low walls— technically "hacked" — 
where they remain from one week to three weeks, till ready 
for burning. In some places no drying floor is used, and 
the bricks are built into hacks at once. The hacks are 
always protected from sun, wind, rain, and frost, and in some 
districts drying sheds are used. Superior qualities of bricks 
are generally "dressed " when half dry, to correct any twist' 
ing or warping. 

Burning. — Bricks are burnt in kilns and in clamps. A 
kiln is a chamber in which the just dried bricks are loosely 
stacked and baked by fires placed either in arched furnaces 
under the floor, or in fire holes formed in the side walls. 
Clamps are employed in burning bricks containing fuel. 
When the clay or marl is very fusible, sifted " breeze " — 
made from cinders, small coal, and ashes — is incorporated 
with it, so that each brick contains in itself the fuel required 
for its vitrification. The bricks are closely stacked that the 
heat to which they are exposed may be uniform. The 
cinders at the lower part of the clamp serve only to ignite 
the lower tiers, from which the heat spreads to the whole. 

A main practical difficulty in brick-making is to obtain a 
sufficient degree of hardness without risking running to- 
gether. Great care is required in firing as well as in 
preparing and mixing the clay. When lime and other fluxes 
are present in the proper proportions, the silica in the clay 
becomes fused at a moderate heat, enough to cement the 
mass together. 

Colour of bricks.— The red colour of bricks is due to the 
iron in the clay; but bricks which when burnt in the 
ordinary way are red, are rendered blue, as in the case of 
Staffordshire brick, by longer firing at a greater heat. The 
addition of lime changes the red to cream brown, while 



i6 

magnesia brings it to yellow. Some fine clays bum to a 
clear white, as that used for Suffolk brick. By employing 
metallic oxides, &c., ornamental bricks may be made of any 
colour. 

Facing bricks. — Special care is used in preparing the clay 
and freeing it from stones, and it is nearly always ground 
between rollers. Sometimes it is left to ripen for a year or 
more before it is tempered enough for moulding. Facing 
bricks are also moulded with greater care, and made "true" 
before burning. 

Cutters. — Bricks which will bear cutting and rubbing to 
any required shape are specially made from fine sandy 
loams, freed from stones by washing. Ordinary bricks are 
too tough to cut well. 

Heavy bricl(. — When bricks are required of denser 
texture, harder and stronger, they are moulded under great 
pressure. Where great strength is required such bricks are 
useful, but their smoothness prevents their adhering well to 
mortar or cement. 

Light brick. — Bricks about one-sixth part the weight of 
common bricks, and so light that they will float in water, 
are made of an infusible earth called fossil meal, found in 
Southern Italy and elsewhere. Such bricks are strong and 
of great use for vaulting, roofs, and similar purposes. 

Hollow brick. — Bricks may be made with a hollow in one 
or both beds to form a key for the mortar. In hand- 
moulded brick the hollow is only in the under surface. 

Ventilating bricks are made with a view to offering 
facilities for the warming and ventilating of buildings. 
They are made in various forms. Some of them (as broad 
as two ordinary bricks) having a bay at each end, as shown 
in Fig. 2. 

Fire-bricks, for use in furnaces and fireplaces, where the 



17 



iheat would destroy ordinary bricks, are made of fire-clays, 
which are comparatively free from lime, magnesia, metallic 
oxides, and all substances acting as fluxes. The clays 
(Stourbridge clay is considered the best) are ground and 
well kneaded and pressed into moulds by hand. Powdered 
burnt clay is often mixed with the clay, as much as two 
parts by weight to one of clay being added. The bricks 
.are dried in stoves and burned at a high temr)erature in 
closed kilns. They are made of various shapes and sizes. 

Brickmaking by machinery. — Brickmaking is now very 
largely done by machinery. The machines are of two 
kinds. In one class a column of well-tempered clay of the 




Fig. 2, 

required depth and width is divided into bricks by means of 
wires moved across. In the other class of machines a fairly 
stiff clay is compressed into moulds, or the clay is dried and 
reduced to powder, and then pressed into moulds. 

Sound bricks should be well burnt, of uniform colour, and 
when struck together should ring with a clear metallic 
sound. They should not be warped or twisted, but regular 
in shape. They should not absorb more than one-fifth part 
of their bulk of water and part with it readily at ordinary 
temperatures. They should bear weight well and not crack 
or scale on exposure to frost. A brick should measure 
?>% mches long, ^% inches broad, and 2^4 inches thick— 

c 



i8 

thus the length exceeds twice the breadth by the thickness 
of a mortar joint. A brick should weigh from 6^ pounds, 
to 7 pounds. Bricks are made in a great variety of shapes, 
to suit particular purposes. 

Stone. 

The stones ordinarily used for house-building will class 
under the two headings — sandstone and limestone. 

Sandstone may be described as consolidated sand, the 
pprticles being held together often by lime, clay, and oxide 
of iron. Owing to their being for the most part stained 
with iron, they are called by geologists red sandstones, but 
they are as often yellow as red, and sometimes grey or 
almost colourless. Familiar examples are the " water- 
stones " (often ripple-marked) and the " pebble-beds 
(containing small pebbles) in Cheshire, which are largely 
quarried for building. 

The following are examples of good building sand- 
stones : — - 

Craigleith stone is quarried near Edinburgh, whitish grey 
in colour, and weighs about 146 pounds per cubic foot. It 
has been extensively used in public buildings in Edinburgh 
— for example : the College, the Law Courts, Custom 
House, Register Office, and Royal Exchange. It varies ia 
quality, and the best quality is dear. It consists of fine 
quartz grains (crystallized silica), with a siliceous cement, is- 
slightly calcareous, and has occasional plates of mica. 

Heddon stone is quarried near Newcastle, is light brown 
ochre in colour, and weighs about 130 pounds per cubic 
foot. It has been used for nearly all the stone buildings in 
and about Newcastle. It varies in quality, but the best is- 
cheap. It consists of coarse quartz grains and decomposed 



felspar, with an argillo-siliceous cement and ferruginous 
spots. 

Bolton's quarry stone is from Aislaby, Yorkshire, in 
colour warm light brown, and weighs about 127 pounds per 
cubic foot. It was used for the New University Library at 
Cambridge, Scarborough Pier, St. Katherine's Docks, &c. 
The top beds are used for house-building, the bottom beds 
for docks, &c. The price is about equal to the Heddon 
stone. It consists of moderately fine siliceous grains, with 
argillo-siliceous cement, plates of mica, and spots of carbon 
disseminated. 

Abercarne and Newbridge stone is quarried near Newport, 
Monmouthshire, of dark bluish-grey colour, and weighs about 
168 pounds per cubic foot. It has been used for many 
buildings in the vicinity, and for the new docks at Newport 
and Cardiff. It costs less than half the price of the best 
Heddon stone. It consists of quartz and siliceous grains, 
moderately iine, with argillo-siliceous cement and mica. 

Limestone is the name given to all varieties of hard rocks, 
consisting chiefly of carbonate of lime. 

The following are examples of good building lime- 
stones : — 

Hoptcn Wood stone is quarried near Wirksworth, 
Derbyshire, warm light grey in colour, and weighs about 
158 pounds per cubic foot. It is used at Chatsworth, 
Belvoir Castle, Trentham Hall, &c. It is of excellent 
quality, but dear. It consists of compact carbonate of lime, 
with fragments of encrinites abundant. 

Chilmark stone is quarried near Salisbury, of light 
greenish-brown colour, and weighs about £53 pounds per 
cubic foot. It is used in Salisbury Cathedral and Wilton 
Abbey, and many buildings in the vicinity. It costs about 
half the price of Hoplon Wood stone. It consists of 

c 2 



20 



carbonate of lime, with a moderate proportion of silica, and 
occasional grains of silicate of iron. 

Totternhoe stone is quarried near Dunstable, Bedford- 
shire, greenish-white in colour, and weighs about ii6 pounds 
per cubic foot. It is used in Woburn Abbey, Fonthill 
House, and many churches in Bedfordshire and Hertford- 
shire. The price is about the same as Chilmark stone. It 
consists of calcareous and argillaceous matter in about equal 
proportions. The structure is fine. 

Magnesian limestone is a term indicating any limestone 
containing 20 per cent, of a salt of magnesia. 

The following are examples of good building magnesian 
limestones : — 

Bolsover stone is quarried near Chesterfield, Derbyshire, 
is light yellowish-brown, and weighs about 152 pounds per 
cubic foot. It is used iu Southwell Church, and numerous 
buildings in the vicinity. It is cheaper than any of the 
limestones referred to, and about the price of the best 
Heddon sandstone. It consists chiefly of carbonate of lime 
and carbonate of magnesia, and is semi-crystalline. 

The stone from the Huddlestone quarry, near Sherburne, 
Yorkshire, is whitish-cream coloured, and in composition 
similar to that obtained from Bolsover. It weighs about 
138 pounds per cubic foot. It is used in York Minster, 
Selby Cathedral, Westminster Hall, &c. It is about double 
the price of the Bolsover stone. 

Oolite.— Limestone made of small rounded grains, 
compact or crystalline, like the roe of a fish, is called 
oolite. 

The following are examples of good building oolitic 
stones : — 

Portland stone, from various quarries in the Island of 
Portland, is of a whitish-brown colour, and weighs from 



21 



135 pounds t° 150 pounds per cubic foot. It is used for 
St. Paul's Cathedral, Goldsmiths' Hall, and very many 
public buildings in London. The price varies much 
according to quality. It consists of oolitic carbonate of 
lime with fragments of shells. 

Ketton stone, quarried near Stamford in Rutlandshire, is 
dark cream coloured, and weighs about 128 pounds per 
cubic foot. It is used in the modern work of Peterborough 
and Ely Cathedral, and many buildings at Cambridge. It 
is rather a dear stone. It consists of oolitic grains of 
moderate size, slightly cemented by carbonate of lime. 

The term "freestone," so often used by contractors and 
others, means simply any rock which can be readily cut for 
the builder. It is more usually applied to sandstone. 

Mortar. 

Mortar is compounded of i part of lime to 2J or 3 parts 
of clean sharp sand, or i part of lime to 2 of clean sharp 
sand and i part of blacksmith's cinders, ground up, or if 
sand cannot be obtained, i part of lime to 2 of ground 
cinders. The water used to slake the lime and in making 
up the mortar should be fresh (salt water injures the 
adhesive qualities of the mortar). Mortar should be 
thoroughly well worked up. 

Lime. — The purest limestones burn to a white rich lime, 
which dissolves fully in water, and remains a long time 
without hardening. It increases from 2 to 3^ times its 
original bulk. Limes usually contain less than 10 per cent, 
of impurities. Lime absorbs in slaking about 2^ times its 
volume of water. 

Hydraulic limestones are those which contain iron and 
clay, so as to enable them to produce cement which 
becomes solid when under water. 



Limes are rendered hydraulic by admixture of pozzolana 
or trass. Hydraulic mortar is made from hydraulic lime 
and sand. 

Cement. 

Portland Cement is made in England and France from 
an argillo-calcareous deposit, which is burned and ground 
up for cement in its natural state without the addition of 
lime. 

Strong Portland cement is heavy (weighing iro pounds 
to the bushel), of a blue-grey colour, and sets slowly. 
Weak cement is light, of brownish colour, and sets quickly. 

Roman Cement is made from lime of a peculiar character 
found in England and France, derived from argillo- 
calcareous kidney-shaped stones termed septaria, and when 
mixed thick it solidifies in a few minutes, whether in air or 
water. Roman cement is about one-third the strength of 
Portland cement. 

The less water used in mixing cement the stronger it 
will be. For most purposes for which cement is used, it is 
first mixed with from one to four or five times its weight of 
clean sharp sand. Of course the strength of neat cement is 
thus diminished. 

Tiles. 

Tilemaking is very similar to brickmaking. The clay or 
ttiarl is dug, weathered, tempered, mixed, and ground, 
being even more carefully prepared than for brick. The 
clay when ready for moulding is stiffer than in brick- 
making. 

Moulding. — The moulder takes a lump of clay and works 
it by hand to the rough form of a tile, rather less than the 
size of the tile wanted. The mould is placed upon the 
bench and well dusted with fine coal dust, and the tile- 



23 



shaped lump thrown in with considerable force. The 
moulder next cuts off the surplus clay level with the mould, 
using a brass wire strained upon a bow, and finishes the 
tile, adding a little clay if needed, and smoothing it with a 
•wooden tool. Then he takes a thin board, about the size 
of the moulded tile, dusts it with coal dust, and turns out 
the tile. This seems to be the process ordinarily followed 
in this country, the details varying in different districts. In 
Holland it is usual for the tile to be rough-moulded larger 
and thicker than the subsequent size, and nearly dried. 
Each tile is then placed on a table dusted with sand, and 
struck two or three times with a rammer of wood larger 
than the tile, compressing it to the required thickness. A 
mould with sharp iron edges is then well welted and pressed 
upon the tile, cutting it to size. 

Drying is in this country usually begun on a drying-floor 
out of doors, weather permitting. The tiles are then placed 
close together and walled up in a dry situation. The " set " 
or curve, if required, is given to tiles (when they are partly 
■dried) on a three-legged stool, called a horse, the top of 
which is curved. Six tiles are put on the horse, and they 
are struck several times with a wooden block curved to 
correspond with the surface of the horse 

Burning. — Tiles require much more careful firing than 
bricks, especially roof tiles, which are the thinnest. The 
circular oven is found to answer the purpose best. At the 
bottom are placed 2000 bricks, and on them 7000 tiles, 
forming a square, the spaces between the tiles and the 
curved sides of the oven being filled in with bricks. 
The tiles are placed edgeways, the nibs on the tiles 
serving to space them off from each other and support 
them in the vertical position. Outside the oven is a wall 
about six feet high, to prevent the fires on one side being 



24 



urged unduly by the set of the wind. There is space for 
the fireman to work between the wall and oven. The fires- 
are kept slow at first and then progressively increased, and 
when the required heat is obtained, before the fires burn, 
hollow, the mouths are stopped with ashes, and the oven, 
suffered to cool gradually. 

Pantiles, ridge tiles, and hip tiles are moulded with 
specially-shaped blocks and tile moulds, and the surface 
smoothed with a roller. The moulder works with very wet 
hands, and greater skill' is required than in moulding 
ordinary tiles. Paving tiles require to be specially well 
burnt, like blue bricks. Oven tiles have to be made from 
specially-prepared clay, so that they may stand oven heat. 

Chimney-pots, garden pots, and drain pipes are commonly 
manufactured at tileries. Glazed stoneware drain pipes and 
sanitary appliances of the same ware are, however, made in 
potteries or special factories. 

Tiles are made red, brown, grey, and blue, and often 
glazed on one side. The beautiful encaustic tiles for which 
Minton's Works are celebrated, are made from clays in the 
immediate neighbourhood that will burn buff, red, &c., or 
manganese is added to stain them black, or cobalt to stain 
them blue, and so on. In any case the clay is refined and 
some additions made to it, as in preparing clay for porcelain. 
These tiles are slowly dried and fired, and generally covered 
with a vitreous glaze. 

Paving tiles are often made to the Dutch size, 8h inches 
square by i inch thick, but they are also made larger and 
smaller, and some of hexagon shape. Tiles for roofs measure 
from 14 inches x 10 inches to 10 inches x 6 inches, and 
from |- to |- of an inch thick. 

Terra=cotta is made from clay prepared and mixed with 
other ingredients, as used for fine facing bricks or tiles. It 



25 



is pressed into moulds, and fired in an oven. During the 
firing it is apt to get twisted from unequal shrinkage, and 
this is difficult to prevent, especially when the pieces are 
large. It is chiefly used for external ornament. 

Slates. 

Good roofing slate should be even-grained and hard, free 
from streaks or flaws, and should give a clear, metallic ring 
when struck. Slates of inferior quality are coarse in texture, 
brittle, and prone to scale off, readily absorb moisture, and 
break away at the edges. To test the quality of a slate, 
breathe on it enough to moisten it, and smell the surface. 
If it give off the odour of clay it is of poor quality. A 
more direct test is to leave a slate for hours half immersed 
in water : if it remain dry down to the water line it may 
be generally relied on to resist the action of the 
weather. 

Slates are cut at the quarries to various sizes, usually 
twice as long as broad. The thickness is from one-sixth ta 
one-eighth of an inch. The different sizes have been oddly 
named. Thus, slates 24 inches x 12 inches are termed 
Duchesses; the next size, 22 inches x 12 or 11 inches, 
are Marchionesses ; and the next, 20 inches x 10 inches, 
are Countesses. The largest sizes are about three feet long, 
and only exceptionally required. The smallest sizes in 
ordinary use are 14 inches x 7 inches, and 12 inches x 
6 inches. 

Slates are used for many purposes besides roofing. They 
are hung on the outside of a wall or built up inside a wall 
to render it damp-proof, and they are often used to make a 
damp-course. Slabs of slate are used for cisterns, baths, 
larder-shelves, mantel-pieces, &c. 



Wood. 



There is a great difference in the weight of the various 
kinds of wood used in house-building, and as the heaviest 
woods are generally the strongest, this is of importance. 
Thus ash, beech, and English oak are from 52 to 53 pounds 
per cubic foot, elm is 42 pounds per cubic foot, plane is 
38 pounds per cubic foot, and poplar only 24 pounds per 
cubic foot. There may even be great difference in the 
weight of various descriptions of the same wood — thus, 
common pine is 26 pounds per cubic foot, red pine 40 
pounds, and pitch pine 45 pounds. 

The timber used in joiners' work and house-building is 
for the most part pine or fir, and the nearly allied larch. 
The trees are tall and straight, and the wood fibre is straight, 
and all but the pitch pine (which contains much resinous 
matter) are easily worked. The so-called hard woods — 
oak, ash, beech, teak, elm, walnut, &c. — are less easily 
wrought and less flexible, They differ from the pine woods 
in being free from turpentine. 

Oak. elm, larch, beech, teak, and plane have the useful 
property of durability under water. 

Oak, larch, teak, plane, walnut, mahogany, chestnut, ash, 
poplar, and all pine woods are durable in dry places. ' 

Good timber should not be too young, for its density will 
be in proportion to the time it has had to grow. It should 
be from the trunk rather than from the limbs, for the lower 
part of a tree is the strongest. 

It should be close-grained and straight-grained, and 
sound, free from cracks and dead knots, and of the quality 
contracted for. It should be well seasoned, not too fresh 
or too recently sawn up, and should be clear of " sap " or 
"heart." The term "sap" is applied to the newly-formed 



27 



Avood of a tree next the bark, through which the sap flows ; 
and it is for the purpose of getting larger timbers than the 
tree should yield this newly-formed wood is encroached 
upon. The timber is by so much the weaker, and when 
the newly-formed wood decays (as it soon will), the decay 
may spread to the sound wood. The term " heart " means 
the centre of a tree, and this also is exceptionally liable to 
decay. The accompanying diagram (Fig. 3) may make 




Fig. 3. 

this plainer than words. A trunk is shown in section sawn 
into planks. It wi;l be seen that the boards marked 3, 4, 
■6, and 7 are sound ; those marked i, 2, 8, and 9 are 
defective through sap, and the board marked 5 is defective 
owing to heart. The soundness of beams and floor-joists, 
as these are the weight carriers, is even more important 
than the soundness of boards. 

A scantling cut 11 or 12 inches wide x 3 inches thick, 
is called a plank ; cut 9 inches wide x 3 inches thick, it is 
called a deal; cut 4^ inches wide x 3 inches, or from 
2 inches to 7 inches wide x 2 inches thick, it is called a 
batten. Similarly, boards 12 inches wide are planks, 
9 inches wide are deals, and 7 inches wide are battens. 



CHAPTER IV. 



Construction. 

Foundations — Exploratory borings — Making a solid Foundation — 
"Footings" — Concrete in basement — Walls — Damp-course— 
Hollow basement walls or areas — Damp-proof coating — Brick- 
setting — Bond — Flues — House wall in exposed places — Regula- 
tions as to thickness of walls— Brick backing to stone — Natural 
bed of stone — Concrete walls — Half timber walls — Floors in 
basement — Size of floor joists — "Trimmers" — Laying floor 
boards— Tongued and grooved flooring — Skirting — Construc- 
tion of staircase — Casement and sash windows — Ventilating, 
boards for sash windows — Amount of window-space required — 
Construction of doors — Size of doors — Roofing — Inclination of 
roof — Construction of roof— Slating — Tiling — Metal-covered 
flats — Flashing — Rain-pipes and gutters — Minimum height of 
chimneys. 

Construction is rather a comprehensive term, but in sa 
far as it relates to the use of building materials a little infor- 
mation may be conveniently given here, preparatory to the 
discussion of such topics as design and general arrange- 
ment. 

The subject naturally divides itself, and will be considered 
under the following headings :• — Foundations, walls, floor,, 
stairs, windows, doors, and roofing. 

The Foundations, it is needless to say, are as important as- 
any part of a house, yet (except in the case of specially 
heavy buildings) but little attention is given to them,, 
perhaps because they are to be quickly covered up, and. 
defects will not be seen for years. 

Rock ordinarily makes a sound foundation, but it is not. 
always possible, without boring, for the builder to be sure 



29 

that he has got down to solid rock. To test this, when a 
length is excavated, bore in two or three places three feet 
deep. What looks like solid rock may be merely a thin 
shell resting on loose stuff. Again, if the rock is stratified, 
that is, arranged in layers, and the layers are not horizontal, 
when the weight of the building comes on it there may be 
a slide. When the ground is soft, and a solid foundation 



i^v///////m> 



0 1 ^ "* • 



=iiiiiiiiiiiiii= ^ 



5» 



M " m - ^\ " 

-5 'o .-^ -. •'. . 



Fig. 4. 



cannot be reached, the walls should be made to rest on a 
broad platform of good concrete or stone, five or six times 
as broad as the walls. For a heavy building it may be 
necessary to make this concrete three feet thick. (See 
Fig. 4.) This shows not only the concrete foundation, but 
the " footings," that is, the brick base on which the wall 
rests. The height of the footings should be not less than 



3° 



two-thirds of the thickness of the wall. The lowest course- 
of the footings should project on each side not less than 
half the thickness of the wall at its base. In any case 
where footings rest on concrete, it should be at least a foot 
wider than the widest part of the footings. A foul founda- 
tion should not in any case be used for a dwelling-house, as 
there is no way of entirely getting rid of the danger there- 
from. If, however, there is any fear of cold, damp air 
being drawn into the house, the whole site of the house 
within the external walls should be covered with a layer of 
cement concrete at least six inches thick, rammed solid and 
overlaid with cement and asphalted. 

Walls of dwelling-houses in this country are built of brick 
or stone or concrete blocks. They should be most carefully 
built from the foundations, a layer of good mortar or cement 
being under the first course, between each course, and well 
filled into the vertical joints. Footings are always required 
— the rule as regards them has been just given. The base- 
ment walls above the footings should be hollow, to ensure 
their being dry inside, and arrangements should be made for 
admitting air to and from the cavity, and for draining it.* 
A proper damp-course should be laid above the footings, 
where the hollow wall begins, extending through the entire 
thickness of the wall ; and another proper damp-course 
should be laid at a height of not less than 6 inches above 
the ground adjoining, also extending through the entire 
thickness of the wall. The iirst, or lower, damp-course 
should be beneath the level of the lowest timbers. The 
hollow or cavity in the wall reaches from damp-course to 
damp-course. (See Fig. 5.) The damp-course may be of 

* In some instances draining and ventilating this cavity may 
present exceptional difficulties, and security against dalnp may be 
best obtained by filling in the cavity with asphalt. 



3^ 



sheet lead, asphalt, or slates laid in cement, or of other 
durable material impervious to moisture. Another way of 
preventing damp coming in from the external ground is by 
making an area round the house, as shown in Fig. 6. In 




Fig. 5. 

this case only one damp-course is required. The area 
should be covered, ventilated, and provided with a drain. 

In dealing with an old house, the walls of which are not 
hoUow. if the owner will not incur the cost of forming an 
area, the walls next the ground may ordinarily be made 
impervious to wet by being overlaid with cement, covered 



32 



"with a mixture of pitch and tar. But if there be no damp- 
course, water will still be admitted from the footings. 

Bricks are laid in beds or courses, and bonded together. 
English bond (which is the strongest) is a course of 
■" stretchers " (each brick showing one side) alternating 




Fig. 6. 



with a course of " headers " (each brick showing the end). 
Flemish bond is a stretcher and header laid alternately in 
the same course. Fig. 7 shows part of a wall in English 
bond ; Fig. 8 part of a wall in Flemish bond. 

The strength of walls is sometimes increased by bonds of 



33 



Jioop iron, but this is not often required in dwelling-houses. 
If used, they should be tarred to prevent their rusting. 

Brickwork should be buiit of good whole bricks, the 
lialf-bricks or quarters required (technically called "closers") 




Fig. 7. 



Tseing cut to the full size. The mortar-joint in brickwork 
should not exceed a quarter of an inch in thickness. To 
throw off the rain, the upper border should be slightly in- 
dented, and the lower border even with the bricks. 




Fig s; 

In building the walls of a dwelling-house, flues will have 
to be formed. These are ordinarily made square or oblong 
in section. Theoretically, a round flue is the best, and 
may be made by lining a flue with stoneware pipes, the 
spandril angles being filled in solid. Flues should be built 

D 



31 



with great care, the surface being well finished and made 
smooth. No woodwork should cross a flue, or enter inta 
the wall of any part of it. The kitchen flue should be of 
9 inch brickwork for lo feet from the top of the fire- 
place. 

To prevent house walls being damp from rain, they may 
be slate-hung or covered with glazed tiles, or plastered over 
with cement. What is called " rough cast " (a surface of 
good mortar sprinkled over with small stone) often endures- 
well. 

Painting a wall will generally keep out the rain, or 
brushing it over with boiled oil. However, any treatment 
tending to make the wall of a dwelling-house impervious to 
air should be avoided if possible. Of course, external 
walls may be built hollow, not merely just above the foot- 
ings, but all the way up. Such walls are absolutely damp- 
proof, and when well tied together with iron or stoneware 
bonds are quite strong. In exceptionally exposed situations 
it may be necessary to build up in the wall a vertical damp- 
course of slate, or pitched cloth or asphalt. 

When a wall terminates as a parapet it is necessary to 
take precautions to prevent damp descending from the top, 
as by finishing the parapet with stone sloped on the upper 
surface and projecting an inch or two over the side ; also 
at the junction of the chimneys and the roof a damp-course 
may be required. 

The thickness of the walls of dwelling-houses is regulated 
according to the size of the building. The minimum thick 
ness required under the " Model Bye-laws " of the Local 
Government Board is as under : — 

"Where the wall does not exceed 25 feet in height its 
thickness shall be as follows :— 

" If the wall does not exceed 35 feet in length, and does 



35 



not comprise more than two storeys, it shall be 9 inches 
thick for its whole height. 

"If the wall exceeds 35 feet in length, or comprises more 
than two storeys, it shall be 13-^- inches thick below the 
topmost storey, and 9 inches thick for the rest of its 
height. 

"Where the wall exceeds 25 feet but does not exceed 
30 feet in height, it shall be 13^ inches thick below the 
topmost storey, and 9 inches thick for the rest of its 
height. 

"Where the wall exceeds 30 feet but does not exceed 
40 feet in height, its thickness shall be as follows : — 

" If the wall does not exceed 35 feet in length, it shall 
be i3|- inches thick below the topmost storey, and 9 inches 
thick for the rest of its height. 

"If the wall exceeds 35 feet in length, it shall be 
18 inches thick for the height of one storey, then 13J inches 
thick for the rest of its height below the topmost" storey, 
and 9 inches thick for the rest of its height. 

"Where the wall exceeds 40 feet but does not exceed 
50 feet in height, its thickness shall be as follows :— 

"If the wall does not exceed 35 feet in length, it shall 
be 18 inches thick for the height of one storey, then 
13 J inches thick for the rest of its height below the top- 
most storey, and 9 inches thick for the rest of its 
height. 

" If the wall exceeds 35 feet but does not exceed 45 feet 
in length, it shall be 18 inches thick for the height of two 
storeys, then 13I inches thick for the rest of its height. 

"If the wail exceeds 45 feet in length, it shall be 
22 mches thick for the height of one storey, then 18 inches 
thick for the height of the next storey, and then 13^ inches 
thick for the rest of its height. 

1) 2 



36 



"Where the wall exceeds 50 feet but does not exceed 
60 feet in height, its thickness shall be as follows : — 

" If the wall does not exceed 45 feet in length, it shall be 
18 inches thick for the height of two storeys, and 13 J inches 
thick for the rest of its height. 

"If the wall exceeds 45 feet in length, it shall be 
22 inches thick for the height of one storey, then 18 inches 
thick for the height of the next two storeys, and then 
13I inches thick for the rest of its height. 

" If any storey exceeds in height sixteen times the thick- 
ness prescribed for its walls, the thickness of each external 
wall and of each party wall throughout that storey shall be 
increased to one-sixteenth part of the height of the storey, 
and the thickness of each external wall and of each party 
wall below that storey shall be proportionately increased 
(subject to the provision hereinafter contained respecting 
distribution in piers). 

" Every external wall and every party wall of any storey 
which exceeds 10 feet in height shall be not less than 
13I inches in thickness. 

" Where by any of the foregoing rules relating to the 
thickness of external walls and party walls of domestic 
buildings, an increase of thickness is required, in the case 
of a wall exceeding 60 feet in height and 45 feet in length, 
or in the case of a storey exceeding in height sixteen times 
the thickness prescribed for its walls, or in the case of a 
wall below that storey, the increased thickness may be con- 
fined to piers properly distributed, of which the collective 
widths amount to one-fourth part of the length of the wall. 
The width of the piers may, nevertheless, be reduced if the 
projection is proportionately increased, the horizontal sec- 
tional area not being diminished ; but the projection of any 
such pier shall in no case exceed one-third of its width." 



37 



Walls built of concrete blocks or cut stone laid in regular 
courses will not ordinarily need to be thicker than brick 
walls ; but walls built of rough stone, not laid in horizontal 
beds, or of flint or boulders, should be one-third thicker. 
Flint and boulders are indeed only suited for building very 
small houses, and the mortar used in constructing such 
walls requires to be exceptionally good. The combined use 















o * - _* 

^ - , ^' 










— * ^ 



















Fig. 9. 

of brick and stone is very common. Thus stone dressings 
are employed in brick buildings, and stone buildings are 
backed with brickwork. When brickwork is used to back 
stonework, they should be well bonded together, as shown 
in Fig. 9. 

When stratified stone is used in building it is important 
that it should be placed on its natural bed, i.e., with the 
layers nearly horizontal, in the same way in which it was 



38 

formed. If this is not done the weathering will often cause 
layers to shell off. 

Dwelling-houses are not often built of concrete, but if 
the material used be good cement concrete, it is well 
adapted for the purpose. The concrete is put into the 
wall-frame in layers, and well rammed down. When the 
concrete is set the frame is removed and re-fixed higher up. 
Or houses may be built of previously-made concrete blocks, 
cemented together, like hewn stone. 

Walls of brick and timber (called half timber walls) are 
usually only used for the upper part of houses. The timber 
should be well seasoned, and of a kind not liable to be 
much affected by the damp. The framing should be pro- 
perly put together and solidly fitted, and the half-timber 
work should be backed with brickwork at least 4^ inches 
thick, and bonded to it. 

Floors. — In the basement, flooring should be hard and 
impervious to wet. Concrete, as already stated, makes 
an excellent foundation for a basement floor. The surface 
may be flagged or tiled over, or may be made of Portland 
cement, with a skirting of the same extending 2 or 3 inches 
up the walls all round. The whole basement floor should 
have a gentle slope, draining it towards an area. 

A suitable floor for lodges and cottages, and houses in 
which the lowest floor is about the level of the ground, may 
be made of wood blocks. A foundation of broken rock or 
clinkers is put in and rammed, and this is covered with 
asphalt on which are placed the blocks, not less than 
3 inches thick, the section forming the tread being across 
the grain of the wood. 

The ground floor of a dwelling-house, when there is a 
floor below it, is made, like the upper floors, of boards laid 
on joists. Even when there is no floor below it, a ground 



39 



floor made in this way is the best, but the space beneath 
must be thoroughly ventilated by sufficient air bricks or 
other openings to the external air. It is also necessary that 
between the under surface of the floor joists and the upper 
surface of the concrete bed beneath there must be a clear 
space of at least 3 inches in every part. If such precau- 
tions be not taken dry rot will almost certainly attack the 
flooring. 

Beams for supporting floor joists and for other purposes 
should not be built into the wall, as the ends thus treated 



*--g"-> 




Fig. 10. 



are apt to decay. They should rest on stone pads or cast 
iron boxes or brackets built into the wall. The ends of 
joists may be conveniently cushioned on a wood plate 
resting on stone or iron or a brick ledge, as shown in 
Fig. 10. 

Joists are often dealt with as if they were wall ties, which 
they are not. 

The joists, or small beams carrying the floor boarding, 
vary in depth and thickness with the width between the 



40 



supports on which they rest. This width is technicalljr 
called the " bearing." Joists exceeding 7 feet clear bearing, 
and not exceeding 10 feet clear bearing, should not be less 
than 6 inches deep by 2 inches thick. Joists exceeding i o feet, 
and not exceeding 12 feet clear bearing, should not be less 
than 6 inches by 2I inches. Joists exceeding 12 feet, and 
not exceeding 14 1 feet clear bearing, should not be less- 
than 7 inches by 2J inches. When the supports are further 
apart than 14I feet, intermediate supports (termed " girders ")■ 
of wood or iron not more than 10 feet apart, should be 
introduced. The strength of the girders must be propor- 
tioned to their bearings. The joists, which are fixed 
parallel to one another, should not be further apart than 
12 inches. The ordinary practice is to nail the floor boards- 
to the top of the joists and the ceiling laths to the under 
side, leaving long unventilated cavities between each joist,, 
in which dust accumulates. Even when separate joists for 
the ceiling are put in, there are still unventilated cavities- 
between the flours and ceilings. A house is healthier and 
better without plastered ceilings; the joists and boards 
being exposed, stained and varnished. That this is neces- 
sarily uglier than an ordinary whitewashed ceiling will 
scarcely be maintained. 

To keep the ends of joists at a sufificient distance from 
flues and fireplaces " trimmers " are used. The position of 
the trimmer is between the joists on either side the projec- 
tion for the fireplaces, and about feet in front. It is 
mortised to the trimmer joists, and gives support to one 
end of the joists between them. Trimmers and trimmer 
joists should be i inch thicker than the neighbouring joists.. 
Trimmers are used also at the opening in the floor for the 
staircase or a trap door. 

Floor boards should be planed on both sides and laid as- 



41 



close as possible. As even in seasoned timber there is- 
some shrinkage after the floor is laid, to make a properly 
tight floor the boards should be tongued and grooved. 
Sometimes the tongues fitting into the grooves are made of 
iron, but this is no advantage. The tongue should be 
nearer the lower edge of the board than the upper, to allow 
room for the floor to wear down, as shown in Fig. ir. The 
joints at the end of the boards should also be tongued and 
grooved, and over one of the joists. Adjoining boards- 
should not end over the same joist. Oak makes the best 
flooring. When this is too costly deal flooring may be 
covered with comparatively thin oak boards. Parquetry 
floors are laid this way in pieces | to f of an inch thick. 




Fig. II. 

The skirting round the floor should not be of wood, but 
cement or tile. Wood skirting often perishes with dry-rot. 
When instead of being 8 or 9 inches high it is 3 or 4 feet, it 
is termed a dado. 

Stairs. — Plenty of space should be allowed for the stair- 
case, as the "well" in which it is placed may be regarded 
as the central ventilator of the house. In dweUing houses- 
the stairs are ordinarily constructed of wood, but the first 
flight or first two flights are often of stone. 

A wooden staircase is made thus : The " treads " (of 
boards at least i-| inch thick) and the "risers" (of boards 
at least i inch thick) are cut to the size required, and 
united by grooved and tongued joints, and underneath in 



42 

the angle where they join are glued little wood blocks. 
These are fixed to the two string boards. The "wall 
string," about i J inches thick, is deeply grooved to receive 
-the ends of the treads and risers, and the " cut string " is 
cut to receive the ends of the treads, and the risers" are 
mitred to it. If the width of the staircase is greater than 
4 feet, between the two string boards is another board cut 
to carry the steps, and sometimes assisted with little side 
brackets. 

Ordinarily it may be said that from the ground floor to 
the first floor the tread of each step should be ii inches, 
and that the step should rise 6 inches, or that the tread 
should be lo inches and the riser 6|. Higher up the tread 
may be 9 inches and the riser 7I- inches, or the tread 8J 
inches and the riser yf. The tread is measured from the 
front of one riser to the front of the next, the projection 
over the riser not being reckoned. The width of tread 
multiplied by the height of riser should come to about 
66 inches. 

Balusters supporting the handrail are the better for being 
quite plain, or they collect dust. The distance between 
them should not be more than 5 inches. The height of the 
rail taken from the outer edge of the step should be from 
3 feet to 2f feet— the deeper the stairs the lower the hand- 
rail. 

Windows are glazed frames of stone, metal, or wood— in 
dwelling-houses preferably the latter. They may be made, 
like doors, to open inwards or outwards, but these so-called 
casement windows are not as satisfactory as sliding sashes. 
Casement windows need weather-boards at the bottom, and 
special contrivances to make them tight. The lower two- 
thirds or three-quarters of a window may be fitted with a 
casement, and the upper part with a sash hinged at the 



43 



bottom, or swung just above the middle on pivots, or made 
to slide down. 

The ordinary sash window has two frames sliding up and 
down in two parallel grooves, the upper sash being external. 
The sashes are hung on cords, which pass over pulley 
wheels, and are balanced by weights not quite as heavy as 
.the sashes. The whole frame should be of hard, well- 



-seasoned wood. The sill should be of oak, overlap the 
stone subsill, and be tongued to it. The upper surface of 
'both should slope outwards to throw off the rain. The 
bottom of the lower sash should slant outwards, and be 
grooved. 

To obtain ventilation without draught a piece of wood 
extending from side to side of the window, and about 4 inches 
■deep, may be fixed to the oak sill, so that the lower sash 
.may be raised 4inches and admit an upward current of air 





Fig. 12. 



44 

between the sashes. This plan of ventilation is known as- 
Hinckes Bird's method. Fig. 12, representing a window in 
section, shows how the piece of wood (A) operates. 

A skylight window should be specially tightly fitted, and 
provided with a channel to carry off the moisture condensing 
on the glass. 

Windows, when practicable, should extend nearly to the 
top of the room, and it is usually an advantage for them to- 
be 2I feet from the floor. 

Every habitable room should have at least one window 
opening directly into the external air. In order that the 
room should be sufficiently lighted, the area of the window 
or windows, clear of the sash frames, should be equal to at 
least one tenth of the floor area of the room. Applying 
this rule, two windows, each measuring 5 feet by 3 feet clear, 
would just suffice for a room 20 feet by 15 feet. 

A window over the front door, swung on pivots, usefully 
assists in ventilating the hall and staircase. 

Doors, like windows, should be made of well-seasoned 
wood, and every part should be made and ready long before 
it is needed, so that the risk of shrinking and warping may 
be reduced to a minimum. House doors are ordinarily 
framed of two upright pieces (styles) and three horizontal' 
pieces (rails). Sometimes the middle rail is omitted. Mid- 
way between the styles is another upright piece (the 
munting), or more than one. The rails are tenoned into 
the styles, and the muntings into the rails. The styles, rails,, 
and muntings carry grooves, into which panels are inserted. 
After putting together, the door is made tight with wedges 
in each side of the tenons. The centre of the middle rail, 
lock and handle should be about 3 feet from the floor. 

Sitting-room doors should not measure under 3 feet by 
7 feet ; bed-room doors may be 2 inches less either way. No- 



45 



door in a dwelling-house should be wider than 3^ feet, or 
narrower than 2^ feet. A door should be so placed that 
when open the room is screened. 

In fixing doors the woodwork of the doorway is usually 
secured to wood bricks built into the wall, and the joint 
between the wall plaster and wood covered by a moulding. 

When it is desired to provide the means of throwing two 
rooms into one, sliding doors, hung on wheels, are better 
than folding doors. 

Roofing. — As regards roofs, the desiderata are that the 
framework shall be strong enough to bear the weight of the 
covering it is designed to support, together with a reason- 
able amount of snow, and that the covering material shall 
be impervious to wet, carry off the rain readily, and be so 
securely fastened that no part shall be loose or become 
displaced. It is convenient also, if practicable, to introduce 
a non-conductor into roofing, making the house cooler in 
summer and warmer in winter. The roof frame is con- 
structed of wood, rarely iron, and the covering is of slate, 
tiles, or thin pieces of stone, sheet lead, corrugated iron, 
&c. If the covering is to be slate, the inclination should 
not be less than 26 degrees; if tiles or thin stone, the 
•inclination should not be less than 30 degrees. If the roof 
is to be covered with metal, a very slight slope will suffice. 

A wooden roof ordinarily consists of rafters, parallel to 
-one another, fixed at the required inclination to a ridge 
■board, and below to a long wooden piece on either side, 
as wide apart as the space to be roofed over. The side 
pieces are tied together to prevent any spreading. If the 
span exceed 15 feet something stronger is needed, and, in 
any case, for a well-built dwelling-house nothmg less strong 
than a properly constructed "truss" roof should be pro- 
vided. A perpendicular placed in the centre of a horizontal 



46 

beam and two principal rafters supported in the centre by 
struts to the lower part of the perpendicular should be 
securely fastened together. To a pair of these so-called 
trusses, should be fixed a ridge-board and pole-plates to 
carry the ordinary rafters. If the rafters are longer than 
12 feet they should be supported by a cross-piece on either 
side, parallel with the ridge, and midway between it and 
the pole-plate. In a "lean-to" roof, which is half an 
ordmary triangular roof, the rafters may be fastened above 
to a horizontal wood plate, secured to the wall on iron 
corbels, and below to the wood plate embedded on the top 
of the wall. A detached dwelling-house will usually have 
two triangular roofs, either side by side or at right angles to 
one another. In a row of houses it is often convenient 
that the party wall should form the ridge, the roof of each, 
house sloping to a gutter in the centre. 

Roofs of dwelling-houses should always be covered with 
boarding laid at right angles to the rafters. A layer of felt 
(a good non-conductor of heat and sound) is a great im- 
provement. The slates, if slates be used, should be 
fastened on with copper, brass or zinc (not iron) nails. 
Each row of slates should overlap the top of the row next 
but one below them by 3 inches, and each slate should be laid 
immediately over the line between the two slates beneath 
it. (See Fig. 13.) 

Slate slabs and rolls are specially made for hips and 
ridges, and should be screwed down, or hip and ridge tiles 
may be used, the jointing being done in cement ; or hips 
and ridges may be of lead. 

In preparing a roof for tiling, laths are often made to 
take the place of boards, as they do commonly in slate- 
roofed cottages. However, a roof thus made is never as 
satisfactory as a boarded one. Tiles are usually half an 



47 



inch thick and vary in size. A common size for the flat, or 
nearly flat, tiles, is lo inches by 6 inches, or a little larger. 
Their lower margins are often of an ornamental shape, so 
as to form a pattern when laid. Pantiles, about 14 inches 
by 10 J inches, are bent like a long S, and are laid over- 
lapping one another, laterally. Tiles, corrugated and 
variously twisted and shaped are also to be had. Tiles, 
when perforated for the purpose, are pegged on the wood, 
but usually they are provided with two little projections 





• 






i 






• 














LAP. 
















• 






















r 



Fig. 13. 

called " nibs," for hanging them. The desideratum is tO' 
make the tiles so firm and light that rain or snow will not 
be driven in during a storm. 

Stone roofing is exceptionally heavy, difficult to make 
thick enough for roofing. Zinc weighs from to li 
pounds per square foot. Metal is laid in widths, the edges 
being rolled together or lapping over a wooden roll. 
Expansion and contraction, the result of varying tempera- 
tures, is thus allowed for. 



48 

The flashing round the chimneys, or of a parapet or 
party-wall, should be zinc or lead -preferably the latter- 
the edge being fastened in the brickwork joints. Cement 
IS not suited for the purpose, as it cracks away from the 
brickwork. 

Ram-gutters and rain-pipes are ordinarily of iron, and the 
rain-pipes should be designed to stand away about 2 inches 
from the wall. A coat of zinc will effectually prevent the 
iron rusting. 

Chimney shafts must be carried up in brickwork at least 
4| inches thick to a height of at least 3 feet above the roof 
adjoining, measured at the highest point in the line of 
junction with the roof. 



CHAPTER V. 



UfsiGN AND General Arrangement. 

Architectural Drawings— Plans, Sections, and Elevations— Details, 
&c., to be shown — Labourers' Cottages — Dwelling-houses 
for Clerks and Foremen — Minimum Size of Rooms, &c. — 
Small Villa Residences— Houses Rented at /50 to £125 a 
Year— Dining-room— Drawing-room— Library — Extra Room 
— Bedrooms — Nurseries — Kitchen — Scullery — Laundry — 
Pantry — Larder and Store-room — Linen-room — Cellars. 

Having fixed upon a locality for the proposed healthy 
home, chosen a suitable site, and given some attention to 
materials ordinarily used in building, and to construction, 
the next matter for consideration is the design and arrange- 
ment of the house. Anyone who contemplates building will 
have some idea of the size and style of the house he 
requires before selecting a site, but the house will be all the 
better for being designed after the site is decided on, so that 
it may be adapted to the conformation of the land and its 
environment. 

It goes without saying that a capable architect should 
be consulted. Architectural designing is an art slowly 
acquired, and proficiency in which is only attained by 
practice. He who, not being an architect, plans his own 
house, is likely to have the proverbial success of the man 
who was his own lawyer and found he had a fool for a 
client. Still, no one is fit to instruct an architect, or form 
a useful opinion on an architect's proposals and suggestions, 
unless he know enough about architectural drawings to be 
able to study a design for a house intelligently, compare 

e 



5° 

one with another, and judge how far the requirements of 
health, comfort, and convenience are fulfilled. 

How is this most elementary knowledge to be gained? 
There is, probably, no better way to become familiar with 
architectural drawings than for a man to measure up the 
house in which he lives, and draw a plan and section of it 
to scale. Any intelligent man can measure a room for a 
carpet, or the walls of it to ascertain the amount of paper- 
hanging it will require. Measuring a house throughout is 
almost as simple a matter, and a little practice will enable 
anyone to sketch a house in miniature from the measure- 
ments taken. This little exercise will not lack interest, and 
the time it occupies will be well spent. 

Plans, Sections, and Elevations are the names given to 
certain mechanical drawings which the architect projects, 
and by means of which he indicates to his clients, builders, 
and others the form, size, and arrangement of the erection 
he has designed. 

A plan is the representation of the appearance a building 
would have if cut asunder horizontally — that is, on a plain 
— or viewed from a point over the centre of the roof. 

A section is the representation of the appearance a build- 
ing would have if cut asunder vertically — that is, from above 
downwards. 

An elevation is the representation of the front or back, 
or one of the sides of a building. 

Plans, sections, and elevations are not drawn to represent 
objects as they appear to the eye, the portions near the eye 
being larger than those remote from it ; but the drawings 
show every object in the flat — that is, put in to one scale. 

It will thus be seen that to show a house completely 
there will ordinarily be required several plans (one for the 
basement, one for each floor, and one for the roof), at 



SI 

least two sections (one from front to back, and one fronv 
side to side), and for a detached house four elevations. As 
regards size, if the drawings are for use in a lecture-room, or f 
the amateur is drawing for exercise, one inch to a foot is a 
convenient scale to work to ; for ordinary purposes, or for 
deposit at the local surveyor's office, a scale of one-eighth of 
an inch to a foot is commonly large enough. When a 




GROUND PLAN 



Fig. 14. 



•design is accepted, and it is decided to build, working 
drawings are prepared showing every detail ; but even tb''" 
plans, &c., submitted for approval should show everythiuj^ 
in the way of fittings, as water-service, cisterns, waste-pipes, 
soil-pipes, drains, ventilators, &c., the position of which is 
of first importance. 

The great art in planning a dwelling-house, large or 
small, is to utilise to the full the entire space, affording the 



E 2 



52 



tenant all the accommodation, convenience, and comfort 
attainable. There should be no oil de sac in which the 
air stagnates, no dark corners giving lodgment to dirt. 
Fresh air and light should have access to every part. No 
pains should be spared in attention to what appear to be 
trifling details. As far as possible, everything about a house 
— beams and girders, gas and water pipes, ventilators, &c. — 
should be displayed. The designer is not ashamed of his- 
construction that he should wish to conceal his beams ; gas 
and water pipes are not more ugly than the contrivances for 




StCT10?( 

Fig. 15 



covering them ; and a ventilator hidden behind a cornice is 
less likely to be kept in good order than if it were exposed. 

Labourers' Cottages. — The smallest description of dwelling- 
house is one suited to the requirements of a single working- 
man or woman, or a married couple without children or 
lodgers. Figs. 14, 15, and 16 show the plan, section, and 
elevation of a pair out of twelve such cottages erected at 
the Coombe, Dublin, for the Dublin Artisans' Dwellings 
Company. The accommodation provided is a living-room 
1 4 J- feet by 10 feet, and a bedroom two-thirds this size, a 
scullery and a passage leading to it,' a w.c. and a coal bin, a 



•S3 

yard in rear 130 square feet clear, and a neat little porch 
giving access to the living-room. The height of the Iwo 
rooms is 10 feet. It may be remarked that the bedroom is 
barely large enough for two adults, but the available air 
■space may be increased by leaving the room door open. 
Close to these dwellings are sixteen others somewhat larger, 
.adapted to the requirements of a man and wife with a single 
lodger. The accomniodation provided is a living-room, 
17J feet by i2ifeet., and two bedrooms above it. The 
living-room is so large as to suggest that a part of it mij,ht 
have been spared for a scullery. The necessity of putting 



1 I 



Fig. 16 

the sink-stcne in the yard would then have been avoi ded 
The w.c. is at the further end of the yard. The cost of the 
two roomed houses, exclusive of site, was ^^75 each ; the 
■cost of the three roomed houses, exclusive of site, was 1 10 
■each. These little houses are not furnished with ash-pits — 
the ashes of each are put into a bucket and collected daily 
Dwelling-houses for Clerks and Foremen. — As an exampl 
■of a fairly satisfactory dwelling-house suited to a clerk or 
foreman earning good wages, the plan, section, and elevation 
•are shown (Figs. 17, 18, and 19) of one of a number of 
houses erected in Goldschmidt-street, Manchester, for the 
Oddfellows' Co-operative Building and Investment Com- 



54 



pany. The accommodation provided consists, as will be 
seen, of a parlour 12 feet by 12 feet, abasement washhouse of 
the same size, a kitchen 13 feet by 1 2^ feet, two bedrooms on 
the floor above, and a bedroom and attic boxroom on the 
■top story. There is a passage 3J feet wide leading to the 
kitchen and stairs ; a scullery, water-closet, and ashpit, and 




GROUND PLAN BtOROOM PLAN 



Fig. 17. 

a yard 84 square feet clear. Each of the six rooms has ai 
fireplace. The rooms on the parlour floor and next floor 
have a clear height of 9 J feet. The only defect worth mention- 
ing is the deficiency of yard space. The cost of these 
houses was ;{^26o each. 

In the country, labourers' cottages are ordinarily semi- 
detached instead of being in rows. Such cottages cost very 



little more, and space is thus given for a good-sized garden 
plot— a matter of some importance. The minimum 
accommodation should be a kitchen which is the living- 
room ; a back kitchen, fitted with boiler and sink, and 
serving as washhouse and scullery ; and above, two or three 
bedrooms. In the rear should be a wood store and (a little 
removed from the house) an earth closet. 




Fig. i8. 



As regards size of rooms, it may be laid down as a rule 
that no habitable room should be of less height than 8 feet, 
or have less floor space than 64 square feet. Certainly in no 
case should a habitable room contain less than 500 cubic 
feet air-space, or a double-bedded room less than 1000 cubic 
feet of air-space. In planning rooms, the most convenient 
proportion, ordinarily, is that the width and length should be 



56 

in the proportion of 3 to 4. A staircase even in the 
smallest cottage, should not be less than 2 feet wide. As a 
general rule, it may be said that chimney-flues should be 
carried up inside walls in preference to outside walls, and 
that they draw better when two are placed together. The 
front door should not open directly into the living-room. 
A lobb)-, or passage, should interpose. The staircase 




fROWT ELZVATIONJ 



Fig. rQ. 

should not ascend from the living-room, but from the lobby 
or passage. The window-space in the smallest cottage 
should be not less than equal to one-tenth of the floor- 
space. 

The design and arrangement of houses for labourers, 
artisans, foremen, and clerks are comparatively quite simple 
matters. It is in the planning of houses which do not 
come within this description that more scope is given for 



57 



the exercise of architectural skill and judgment-homes of 
.every shape and size, from the semi-detached suburban villa, 
letting at from ^£30 to £40 a year, to the residence of the 
^'comfortably off" family, bearing a rental of from £120 to 
^130. Houses much larger than this, town or country 
mansions, where regular departments for servants have to 
:be provided, it is not proposed to discuss in these papers. 

Small Villa Residences.— It may be said that the most 
gifted designer will not plan a very desirable villa for a 
rental of ^^30 to £40. Still, much may be done if the aim 
be to make the house healthy and comfortable inside rather 
than showy outside, and if not too much in the way of 
accommodation be attempted. It is always better to pro- 
vide six rooms of fair size than eight very small ones. 
What may be, and should be, provided in such a house is 
two sitting-rooms, three ordinary bedrooms, a servant's bed- 
room, a kitchen, scullery, pantry, larder, bath-room, and w.c. 
When the site is large enough it is better that the house 
should be a little wider and deeper, and have only one 
storey. This will admit of having the two sitting-rooms, 
pantry, kitchen, scullery, and larder all on the ground floor, 
and the bedrooms, bath-room, and w.c. on the flioor above. 
The entrance should be ordinarily at the side, thus opening 
on a hall (however small) rather than a passage. Where 
there is room, a vestibule or porch of some sort is a great 
improvement. Such a house almost arranges itself. One 
enters a fairly wide hall, and right and left are drawing- 
room and dining-room. Beyond the dining-room, against 
the pantry wall, is a passage leading to the pantry, kitchen, 
scullery, and larder. There is space for a good staircase, 
which may be lighted from above, and for three good bed- 
rooms. The servant's room may be over the kitchen, and 
a box-room may be provided in the attic. The place for 



58 

the bath-room and w.c. is over the scullery, where it can be 
easily cut off from the rest of the house. 

If the villa were detached, instead of semi-detached, the 
two sitting-rooms would not be placed one behind the 
other, but both in front, and the kitchen and offices behind 
them. 

tfouses letting at £50 a year and upwards— Having 
referred as fully as is necessary to the planning of the 
humbler class of houses, it is proposed now, instead of 
showing representative plans of town and country houses 
letting at about ^450, ^75, ^ico, and ^^-125 a year, which 
would make rather a long chapter, to remark briefly on 
the different rooms and the requirements as regards each. 
The rooms and offices needed by a family keeping four or 
five servants are essentially similar to the rooms and offices 
needed by a family keeping two servants. One family 
requires larger rooms than the other, and perhaps a few 
more. 

Dining-room. — This room should be regular in shape and 
about one-third longer than its width. The minimum size 
is easily calculated. A dining-table is seldom, if ever, made 
smaller than 3I feet by 3I feet, and when the two leaves 
are put into this table it will measure 7 feet by 3^- feet. In 
use it will be surrounded by chairs, and the depth of a 
dining-room chair from front to back is i| feet. The 
table and chairs will therefore measure lol feet by 7 feet. 
The narrowest gangway necessary for serving is 2^ feet 
wide all round ; thus a dining-room should not be less than 
15!^ feet by 12 feet. The sideboard, unless there be an 
embayment for it, will project into the room not less than 
2 feet ; and the fireplace, fender, ttc, will project 
into the room not less than 2 feet. If the sideboard 
be at one end and the fireplace at the other, this 



59 



.vould give 19^ <^et by 12 feet- not a wellpropor- 
tioned room. If the fireplace be at the side, the 
space needed would be lyl feet by 14 feet; but as a little^ 
extra space should be allowed for serving just in front of 
the sideboard, the minimum may be reasonably set down 
at i8|- feet by 14 feet. The window may be at the end 
opposite the sideboard, or at the end opposite the fireplace. 
A dining-room is better lighted from the side than from the 
end, but much might depend on the aspect. If the aspect 
of the end window would be S.E., and the aspect of the 
side window N.E., then it would be better to light the rocm^ 
from the end. The entrance may be at the side or end, 
but it is desirable that it should be near the sideboard. 
The gas or electric lighting of such a room may consist of 
four sconce lights affixed to the sides or ends. 

Drawing-room— There is no occasion for this room to be 
regular in shape ; indeed, some irregularity of form often 
improves a drawing-room. Thus it may be L shaped 
(being composed of two rooms joined at right angles), or it 
may have a deep bay at the end or middle of one side. 
As regards dimensions, these should be governed by the 
size of the dining-room ; that is, as a general rule, the 
drawing-room should be rather larger than the dining-room. 
The minimum dining-room, just referred to, contains 259. 
square feet ; the floor space of the drawing-room in the 
same house should therefore be a Httle in excess of this. 
Thus the dimensions might be 22 feet by 12 feet, giving. 
264 square feet. Indeed, a long room like this, wiih three 
handsome windows along one side, looking out S. or W.,. 
and properly screened by sun-blinds or otherwise, would 
make a pleasant country drawing-room. In a town house 
the room might more nearly approach the shape of the 
dining-room. Any shape is allowable except a square. If 



6o 



the room be L shaped it is usual to treat it as two rooms, 
and provide two doors and two fireplaces. Ordinarily 
•except the drawing-room be very large, one fireplace is 
sufficient. Fifty per cent, more sconce lights would be 
required for a drawing-room than for a dining-room of the 
same size. 

Library.— A square or nearly square room is often well 
■adapted for a library. As it is of all things necessary that it 
•should be dry, and one does not want a hot room to read 
and write in, the window may look to the north-east. It 
may be at the side or back of the house (out of the way of 
noise), and its size should not in any case be less than 
■about 14 feet by 14 feet. The door may be opposite the 
window. On one side will be the fireplace, with fittings for 
books on either side of the chimney projection, and on the 
side opposite this the bookcases. 

Extra room.— A fourth sitting-room, whether under the 
name of morning-room, boudoir, sewing-room, or business- 
Toom, is a great convenience. Its size, position in ihe 
Ihouse, and aspect, will, of course, depend upon the use to 
which it is proposed to put it. Ordinarily it will not be 
■assigned a prominent position in the house. 

Bedrooms may be of all shapes and sizes. The propor- 
tions of the principal bedrooms should be, as in the dining- 
room, the length one-third more than the width. In 
planning a bedroom the position of the bed or beds should 
'be considered. A bed should not be put in a 
•corner, but with the head against a wall or a little removed 
from the wall. The window or windows should be at risht 
angles to the bed-head. The door should generally be on 
the side opposite the window, and so arranged that it will 
screen the bed when partly open. The best position for 
the firejilace is usually in the side opposite the bed. Of 



61 



course, the bed must be quite clear of draughts 
from doors or windows. At least one bedroom in 
a house should be accommodated with a dressing-room 
leading from the landing to the bedroom, such bedroom 
having also a separate entrance. Finally, it is very desirable 
to have one bedroom in a remote part of the house cut off 
by a lobby, so that it may be used— should occasion 
require— for isolating an infectious patient. In a large 
house two rooms, with a separate w.c, might be thus- 
cut off. 

Servants' bedrooms are very often defective, even in 
houses having plenty of spare room. The attic appropriated 
to the use of two or three servants has rarely enough air- 
space, commonly no fireplace or efficient ventilation, and, 
being just under the roof, is unduly hot in summer and 
cold in winter. Servants may reasonably expect that at 
least one properly constructed bedroom at the back of the 
house should be given to them. 

Nurseries. — Both day and night^nurseries will be required 
in most houses. The day nursery should be bright and 
cheerful, having preferably a S. or W. aspect. The win- 
dows should be fitted with sun-blinds. The night nursery 
may look S.E., and catch the morning sun. The fireplaces- 
should be fitted with guards the children cannot displace, 
and each nursery doorway should have a gate with a spring 
catch. 

Kitchen. — It has been frequently stated that the best 
place for the kitchen is in the top storey. This arrangement 
is, however, rarely practicable. The best position is on the 
N.E. side of the house, not far from the dining-room. A 
ready escape for all cooking smells must be provided, as by 
carrying the windows up to the ceiling and making louvred 
ventilators at the top. A kitchen should not be much 



CHAPTER VI. 



Warming, Lighting, and Ventilation. 

Tsmperature required Indoors— Heat obtained by Combustion— 
The Open Grate, the Close Stove, and the Gas Stove- 
Radiation, Convection, and Conduction— Grate to have 
supply of external Air— Flue and Draught— How to prevent 
Down-draught— Defects of the Open Grate— Utilising the 
. Back Heat— Gallon's Grate— The " Low-pressure " and 
"High-pressure" Systems of Heating by Hot Water- 
Steam— Lighting— Relative Cost of Illuminants— Electric 
Lighting — Incandescent Electric Lamp — Hydrocarbons- 
Gas— The Meter— Water in Pipes— Gas-leaking— Argand, 
Bat-wing, and Fish-tail Burners— Governors for regulating 

Pressure— Treatment of Dry Air— The " Globe " Light 

Gas-light fed by external Air— Ventilation— Impurities in Air 
from Respiration, &c.— Amount of Fresh Air Required- 
Minimum Air-space to be allowed an Adult— Forces effecting 
Natural Ventilation— Sherringham Valves and Tobin's Tubes. 
—Air admitted may need Filtering— Outlets— Dr. Arnott's- 
Valves — MacKinnel's Ventilators — Ventilation of Hall and 
Staircase-well. 

The topics to be discussed in this chapter have sn 
obviously important influence on the healthiness and com- 
fort of any house, large or small. It will be convenient,, 
first to consider warming, then lighting, and finally ventila- 
tion. But all these are so intimately connected that, practi- 
cally, they form one subject. 

Warming. — Dwelling-houses in this country all need some 
artificial means of warming them. The amount of warmth 
healthy adults, properly clothed and fed, require indoors 
depends on the individual and the temperature of the 
external air, A temperature of from 50 deg. to 60 deg. Fah. 



65 



is ordinarily felt as comfortable. However, very young 
children and old persons need a temperature of from 65 deg. 
to 75 deg. Fah. 

Heat for warming houses is always obtained by means of 
combustion— that is, the union of what will burn with the 
oxygen of the air. What is required, therefore, is sufficient 
fuel, sufficient air, and a suitable appartus in which to effect 
the union of the combustible with oxygen. There are three 
kinds of suitable apparatus in ordinary use — the open grate, 
the close stove, and the gas stove. The grate or stove as 
usually fitted up is designed to heat the room or hall in 
which it is placed ; but parts of the house remote from the 
combustion apparatus may be heated by pipes conveying 
hot air or in which circulates hot water or steam. 

Heat is communicated by radiation, convection, and 
conduction. The latter is so slow a process it may almost 
be disregarded. Communication by radiation means that 
the rays of heat strike objects impeding their progress, and 
these objects, according to their properties, absorb more or 
less heat, which is afterwards communicated to the air 
around them. Communication by convection means that 
the air next the hot fuel and hot apparatus, becoming 
heated, diffuses and ascends, giving place to other air to be 
heated and diffuse and ascend in turn. 

The open grate warms chiefly by radiation ; close stoves 
and hot pipes warm mainly by convection. Radiant heat 
makes the walls and furniture warm, and leaves the air 
relatively cool. Close stoves and hot pipes warm the 
air and leave the walls and furniture relatively 
cool. Radiant heat has been generally held to be 
healthiest and best suited for warming occupied rooms, as 
it directly warms room and occupier ; but the room is 
better warmed if also partially heated by convection. 



66 



The amount of heat given off during combustion depends 
largely on the quantity of oxygen combming with the 'com- 
bustible in the fuel, and, as air expands with heating, cold 
air will bring to the fire more oxygen than a similar amount 
of heated air. It follows, therefore, that it is better to feed 
the fire with a current of fresh cold air from outside the 
house than from the partly-warmed less pure air ii the 
room. 

As in the process of combustion oxygen is taken from the 
air and carbonic acid and noxious vapours are added to it, 
the air fed to the fire, having done its work, must be carried 
off rapidly by means of a good flue. In practice it is often 
found useful to have the throat of the flue somewhat con- 
tracted, to ensure more complete combustion. But even 
when the combustion is nearly complete, and little or no 
smoke is observed, a good flue and good draught up it 
are still necessary. The draught is the result of the 
difference of the temperature inside the flue and the 
external temperature, and this is often enough to cause a 
movement of air equal to lo feet per second, which in a 
flue 14 inches wide and 9 inches deep would mean the 
abstraction of 31,500 cubic feet of air from the room 
hourly. 

Care should be taken that flues are not so planned that one 
when drawing causes a down-draught in another. However, 
this is not likely to happen if the chimney-shafts are carried 
up to an equal height, and higher than any adjoining 
building ; and, if each fire is provided with a sufficient and 
independent air supply, wire gauze fastened over the top of 
the chimney, or som.e form of cowl, may check the down 
draught. 

Long experience in this country has certainly shown that 
the pleasantest way of warming a room is by the open 



67 



grate. Its irremediable defect is that radiant heat is so 
weak at a distance. The effect produced lessens as the 
square of the distance. Thus, whatever the effect is a foot 
from the fire, at 4 feet it will beXsixteen^times less, and at 
8 feet it will be sixty-four times less. An open grate is not 
therefore, sufficient of itself to warm a large room. Another 
■defect is that the open grate does>ot sufficiently utilise the 
heat generated. The amount of heat utilised is about 42 
per cent, the amount carried up the chimney is about 




Fig. 



20. 



43 per cent., and the amount lost by conduction externally 
and by imperfect combustion is about 15 per cent. A third 
defect in the open grate is that it abstracts oxygen unneces- 
sarily from the room it is warming. Very much has been 
done to remedy both the remediable defects. The utilisation 
of the back heat is provided for in the grate originally 
designed by Gallon for use in barrack-rooms. " Fresh air 
is admitted to a chamber formed at the back of the grate, 
where it is moderately warmed by a large heating surface 
and then conveyed by a flue, adjacent to the chimney flue 

F 2 



68 



lo the upper part of the room, where it flows into the 
currents which already exist in the room. The effectual 
combustion of the coal is obtained by limiting, to a certain 
extent, the draught at the bottom of the grate, and supply- 
ing warmed air to the top of the fuel at the back of the 
fire." Fig. 20 is a reproduction of the inventor's illustration. 
" Section of a room with a ventilating grate and warm-air 
flue, showing action of fire in producing circulation of air." 

A plan of this excellent grate is given (Fig. 21) and an 
elevation of the same (Fig. 22). 

Many forms of grate are now made on Gallon's principle. 
The air-chamber should be large enough, and its heating- 




FiG. 21. 

surface should be increased by flue projections of iron from 
the grate-back. It should be continued up round the flue 
to the point where it is delivered into the room. Facilities- 
should be given for cleansing the chamber, or it will be 
choked with dust. 

To prevent the currents of air at any time being reversed 
and heat being driven out, a valve may be provided. As- 
gases pass through red-hot cast iron so readily, the back 
and sides should be lined with fire-clay or made of wrought 
iron. 

The fault of most open grates, that they abstract air 
needlessly from the? room, is got rid of by feeding the fire 
with external air through a pipe opening in the hearth. 



69 



fitted with a damper to regulate the current. The inlet to 
the pipe should be protected by an iron grating. Even if 
the grate be against an inside wall, it may easily be supplied 
with external air. 

Of course the air heated at the back of grates similar^ m 
construction to Gallon's may be conveyed to the adjoining 
room or rooms above instead of being discharged into the 




Fig. 22. 



room where the grate is. Again, the back heat of a grate 
may be utilised by means of a boiler and circulating pipes, 
which will carry heat where it is wanted. Thus, in houses 
where the rooms are too large to be sufficiently heated by 
•open grates, the required additional heat may be obtained 
by hot-water pipes. 

In a hot-water circulating system there is nothing gained 
by having the pip^^s so small as those often fitted. If pipes 



7° 



are three or four inches in diameter, a comparatively large 
heating surface is provided, and the water need only be a 
moderate heat. Fig. 23 shows an arrangement of pipes and 
coils for heating two rooms. The black pipes are the flow- 
pipes from the top of the boiler. The coils and the return 




Fig. 23 

pipes terminating at the bottom of the boiler are in white 
Note that the pipe from the cistern is connected with the 
flow-pipe. The air valves are at points where it is possible 
for air to accumulate, but small open pipes extending up- 
wards to just above the level of the cistern are better than 



71 

valves, and much less likely to get out of order. The water 
IS kept in circulation, because, when heated, it expands, and 
is lighter, and therefore ascends, the colder and heavier 
water in the descending pipe taking its place at the bottom 
of the boiler. The velocity is governed by the difference 
in the temperature between the ascending and descending 
columns. 

Dr. Parkes states that, in dwelling-houses, for every looo 
cubic feet of air space 12 feet of 4-inch pipe should be 
given, and this will heat to 65 deg. Fah. The heat of the 
warming surface should be from 120 deg. to 140 deg. Fah. 
Too hot a warming surface gives the air heated a burnt 
smell, and makes it too dry for health. If the temperature 
of the room does not exceed 75 deg. Fah., the air will not 
smell burnt or be unduly deprived of its moisture. 

This is the "low-pressure" mode of heating— the pipes 
are large and begin and end in a boiler, the water is never 
heated above 200 deg. Fah., and outlets are provided for the 
exit of air. 

There is another method of heating by hot water — a 
method not free from danger, the pipes being subjected to 
a " high pressure." No boiler is provided, but a portion of 
the endless tube in which the water circulates passes through 
the fire. The pipes forming the endless tube have thick 
iron walls, the inside diameter being about half an inch, 
and the water is heated to 300 deg. or 350 deg. Fah. 

In dwelling-houses, heating by hot water is better than hot 
air, and the low-pressure system is preferable to the high- 
pressure system. 

Warming by steam is a satisfactory method if waste 
steam be available (which rarely happens in a dwelling- 
house), but if not is more costly than warming by hot 
water. 



72 

For warming, gas appears to be relatively more expensive 
than coal fires and water heated thereby. The one great 
advantage gas stoves possess is that their heat is always at 
command- they can be lighted and extinguished at any 
time. Gas stoves are made in every variety of form and 
size. For instance, there is a small cooking-stove, which 
would prove useful as an auxiliary in most kitchens; and a 
stove with jets behind a coloured glass screen and a metal 
reflector below, suited for heating a hall not otherwise 
warmed. 

The little open grates, also, fitted with asbestos or other- 
wise, give radiant heat, and are often most convenient in 
bedrooms or dining-rooms. 

Every gas-stove in use should have a flue-pipe to carry off 
the products of combustion. 

Lighling.— Artificial lighting is needed in all houses in 
this country, and unless done by electricity, it assists also 
in warming the house. In old times, the provision for 
lighting consisted of lamps, oil, and candles, and formed 
part of the furniture and stores of the house ; but gas is 
now so convenient, and gives so little trouble, that nearly 
all urban and suburban houses, and a large proportion of 
rural ones, are provided with fittings for lighting by gas. 

Candle-light is, indeed, relatively so much dearer than 
the light from gas or lamps that houses (with rare excep- 
tions) are no longer lighted by candles alone. As regards 
the relative price of the illuminants ordinarily in use, it may 
be said that colza oil (a vegetable oil, chiefly derived from 
rapeseed) is three or four times as expensive as gas, and 
petroleum is rather cheaper than gas. However, it is quite 
probable that the cost of replacing broken lamps and 
chimneys often makes petroleum-lighting quite as dear as 
gas. If the price be the same, there is really no reason for 



73 

preferring petroleum. The risk of accident is greater with 
petroleum than with gas; petroleum gives more trouble, 
and usually burns more imperfectly, giving off smoke, and 
making a disagreeable smell. Gas-light is, therefore, 
ordinarily considered better than lamp-light for a dwelling- 




FiG. 24. 



house, unless the householder is prepared to pay a rather 
extravagant price for lamps and oil. When gas cannot be 
had, light can be obtained from lamps equal to any given 
by gas. 

It has been already stated that heat for warming houses 
is obtained by means of combustion, and that combustion 



74 



is the union of what will burn, with the oxygen of the air. 
Lights for artificial illumination may be produced in two- 
ways — by combustion, or by the impeded conduction of an 
electric current. 

Electric Lighting. — The advantages of the electric light 
are that it is clear and white, and closely resembles sunlight, 
which no other light does; that it is only slightly heating, 
and can be arranged to consume no oxygen and give off no 
noxious vapours. However, before this method of lighting 
is available generally and at moderate cost, many problems 
will have to be solved with reference to the supply of 
electricity and its distribution. The incandescent lamp 
ordinarily in use (the Swan lamp shown in Fig. 24) consists 
of a delicate carbon thread hung in a glass globe, from 
which air is excluded. A current of electricity sent through 
this thread heats it to incandescence, but does not destroy 
it owing to the absence of air in the globe. The Swan 
lamp is made in imany sizes — from the tiny globe giving the 
light of one candle, up to the larger globes of several 
hundred candle-power each. 

Other Lighting. — However, where electric lighting is 
not available, in house lighting as in warming, what is 
required is fuel and air enough, a suitable apparatus in 
which to effect the union of the combustible with oxygen, 
and due facilities for carrying off the products of combus- 
tion. 

The fuel is a compound of hydrogen and carbon (called 
a hydrocarbon), and both, being combustible, unite with 
the oxygen of the air. The hydrogen and oxygen form 
water; the carbon and oxygen, ultimately, carbonic acid. 
And, as gas and oils are never quite pure, the impurities 
get oxidised too, producing gases and compounds more or 
less noxious. The process of combustion is the same 



75 

whether the fuel be gas, or oil, or fat. The oil or lat 
(liquefied by heat) ascends the wick by capillary attraction,, 
and, in the flame or its immediate vicinity, is volatilised, or 
converted into gas. Thus," what is burnt is just as truly gas- 
as if it had been distilled from coal and supplied under 
pressure for use at a burner. However, while gas and 
mineral oils are (without taking count of slight impurities)- 
composed of hydrogen and carbon only, vegetable and 
animal fats and oils all contain some oxygen also. 

Gas is a mixture of light and heavy carburetted hydrogen 
and other hydrocarbons, distilled from coal in retorts and 
purified with more or less care. Ordinarily, the house- 
holder has no choice as to the manufacturer of his gas. If 
he requires it, he has to take it from the Company supply- 
ing the district, and generally it i of fair quality and 
purity. When it proves unsatisfactory it is probably due to- 
the fittings, and over these he has control. 

First, as to the meter. This should be dry There is 
more than one ground of objection to the wet meter, but 
one will suffice. During cold weather the water therein 
may become frozen, and cut off the supply of gas altogether. 

Next, to prevent water from lodging in the pipes, a small 
pipe should be taken down from the lowest part of the 
domestic service and fitted with a cock to draw off any 
accumulation of water. Gas is stored in contact with water 
in the reservoir, and readily absorbs it, and, when its tem- 
perature falls, deposits it again. This runs down to the 
lowest part of the pipes, and the gas can only get through it 
in bubbles, causing the too familiar flickering of the flame. 
A little water like this in frosty weather may form a solid 
obstruction. 

In the third place, to prevent leakage, the householder 
should insist on al fittings being tested (a very simple- 



76 



imatter) before being fixed. As the sliding pendants com- 
monly seen in kitchens always leak after a little use, fixed 
pendants should be used instead. In gasaliers sliding up 
and down, the water-tube should be filled nearly to the top 
-with water, and a little oil added to prevent the water evapo- 
rating. 

Fourthly, much attention should be given to the selection 
•of good burners. At least two kinds of burners can be 
recommended The Argand burner, consisting of a 

ring (commonly f inch in diameter), with numbers of fine 
openings at the top, and (2) the bat-wing burner, which 
consists of a tube having a rounded top of porcelain (or 




Fir,. 25. 



.•similar material), in which is a vertical cut for the gas to 
■come through. There is a third form of burner, which is, 
perhaps, more used than either of these. It is a tube 
having a top of porcelain (or similar material), with a depres- 
sion in the centre, in which are two pinholes directed 
obliquely towards one another. This is known as the fish- 
tail burner. It gives a flat flame like the bat-wing, but the 
flame is less broad. The diff"erence between a fish-tail and 
.a bat-wing burner are well shown in Fig. 25. When a large 
flame is wanted and gas is burnt at low pressure, the bat- 
wing seems better than the fish-tale. The Argand burner 
requires a chimney to regulate and steady the supply of air. 



77 



It is adapted for a room requiring a central pendant light or 
more than one, or for a gas reading-lamp. The bat-wing^ 
and iish-tail burners need no chimney, but the flame is 
usually surrounded with a globe for safety and ornament, 
and to tone down the light of the naked flame and shield it 
from side draughts. Such burners are suitable for brackets 
and gasaliers. All these forms of burners have been 
recently improved. For instance, Messrs. Sugg and others 
have much improved the Argand. Mr. Silber's "Con- 
cordia " burner is a vast improvement on the old fish-tail, 
and a bat-wing burner is now made with two very fine slits 
instead of one. 

In the fifth place, something should be done to regulate 
the pressure. Of course, the Companies try to equalise 
pressure by increasing it in anticipation of the dem.and in 
the evening, and lowering it when the chief demand has 
ceased. Still the pressure, which is expressed in inches of 
a column of water, varies from about inches to 3;^ inches 
or more. The result of a considerable increase in pressure 
is to set every light or jet in the house " singmg," or 
" boiling." The gas, rushing out so strongly, does not find 
oxygen enough for its complete combustion, so that the 
flame is less luminous, and part of the carbon is given off 
unoxidised, causing a fall of " blacks." For the prevention 
of this nuisance, what are called " governors " are used. A 
governor should not be, as it often is, merely something, 
interposed to break the force of the pressure; but its action 
should vary with the pressure. For instance, an excellent 
governor consists of a chamber under the burner, containing 
a disc of metal or other suitable material, which is raised by 
the gas current, diminishing the outlet. Increased pressure 
causes the disc to be raised higher. However, a governor 
for every burner is not needed. One governor placed upoa 



78 



the house main, jusL inside the meter, is sufficient in a house 
•of moderate size. 

In the sixth place, as gas (if much be used) heats and 
dries the air unduly, and very dry air is unhealthy and 
irritating to the lungs, it is often desirable in a gas-lit house 
to restore to the air some of the moisture it has lost. For 
this purpose two or three large saucers of water may be put 
■on the top of a bookcase, or cabinet, or super-mantel. The 
■^\•ater should be renewed every evening. A better result is 




P'iG. 26 



produced if the saucers be charged with lime-water, as this 
will gather out of the air some of the carbonic acid and 
■sulphurous acid produced by the combustion of the gas. 

Finally, as householders are generally satisfied with less 
light from lamps or candles than from gas, when gas is 
fitted there is need of increased ventilation. The simplest 
way of obtaining the required ventilation is to fix above 
each burner a tube with an expanded mouth to carry the 
products of combustion directly to the external air or to a 



79 



•flue. However, the oest way of getting rid, not only of the 
foul air from the gas flame, but the foul air exhaled by the 
occupants of the room, is by burning the gas in a " Globe " 
light or other ventilating burner. In the " Globe " the gas- 
pipes come down from the ceiling through a tube. The 
burner (similar to the Argand) and lower part of the tube 
are surrounded by a white glass or ground-glass globe. The 
air is drawn in at the top of the globe, feeds the flame, and 
is then carried up the tube to a horizontal tube into the 
chimney of the room. The horizontal tube and the upper 
lo inches or 12 inches of the perpendicular tube are 
surrounded by another tube, which it warms, and through 
this is drawn the impure air at the top of the room. 

If the room be otherwise efficiently ventilated, and there 
is no objection to lighting it from the external wall only, the 
most perfect method of lighting is to place the gas burner 
in a globe entirely cut off from the room, supplied with air 
■directly from the external air, the products of combustion 
being also carried off directly. The arrangement, as 
depicted in Galton's "Observations on the Construction of 
Healthy Dwellings," is shown in Fig. 26. The fresh air 
comes through the grating at C, passing along the outer 
tube to the globe; and the foul, heated air passes away 
through the inner tube. 

Ventilation — literally, causing a wind — may be defined as 
the operation of supplying confined places with the 
necessary fresh air. In principle it is simple enough, but in 
practice often very difficult. 

The air in a room is affected by human beings as much 
as it is by burning fuel to light or warm the room. The 
©xygen is diminished and the carbonic acid increased. 
Thus in 10,000 parts of ordinary pure air it has been 
calculated that there are 2081 parts of oxygen and 4 parts 



8o 



of carbonic acid ; whereas in the same quantity of expired! 
air there are 1603 parts of oxgyen and 438 parts of carbonic 
acid. The quantity of air inhaled and exhaled by an adult 
in twenty-four hours is about 360 cubic feet, or 2000 
gallons. An adult also gives off watery vapour into the air 
by skin and lungs, the amount being about a pint and a- 
half daily ; and animal matter (particles of skin, fatty 
matter, &c., in a more or less active state of putrefaction)^ 
which causes the disagreeable odour in close, crowded rooms. 
The amount of this animal matter varies — the average 
amount given off by an adult is from 30 to 40 grains 
daily. Indeed, the animal matter coming from the lungs- 
is of more importance even than carbonic acid, but, as the 
latter is practically in constant ratio with other impurities, 
the amount of carbonic acid is determined, and taken as a 
convenient index to the amount of other impurities of the 
air in occupied rooms. The carbonic acid an adult adds tO' 
the air of a room is f of a cubic foot in an hour. 

Good ventilation impUes that anyone coming from the 
pure air into a room should perceive no difference between 
the air in the room and outside air in point of freshness 
Taking the carbonic acid as the index of impurity, the 
organic impurity of the air is not in the least perceptible to 
the senses till the carbonic acid in the air is raised from 4 to- 
6 per 10,000 volumes. The permissible maximum of 
carbonic acid in an inhabited room being 6 in 10,000, the 
question is, what quantity of pure external air should pass- 
through the air of a room vitiated by respiration, &c., per- 
head per hour, in order to keep the carbonic acid in 
this ratio? The quantity, according to Dr. Parkes, is- 
3000 cubic feet. The next question is, what should be the 
minimum size of air space for each adult through which this 
air has to pass ? This depends, of course, on the rate at 



8i 



which air can be taken through this space without the move- 
ment being perceptible or injurious. 

If proper mechanical means are employed the air of a 
room may be changed six times hourly without draught. 
Thus under these conditions the minimum air space for an 
adult would be 500 cubic feet. If the mechanical 
means used are of an inferior kind, and certainly if 
natural ventilation is relied on, a change equal to four 
times an hour is generally all that can be borne, and' 
at least 750 cubic feet of air space should be allowed for an 
adult. 

However, much will depend on the size of the room, 
for it is easier to change the air of a large room five or 
six times an hour without draught than to change 
the air of a small room five or six times an hour 
without draught. Much also depends on the warmth 
of the moving air introduced. At a temperature 
of from 55 deg. Fah. to 60 deg. Fah. a rate of feet per 
second is not perceptible ; whilst at about 70 deg. Fah. a 
greater velocity is not perceptible. In ordinary houses, 
where perfect mechanical ventilation is out of the question, 
yet where natural ventilation is assisted by the powers of 
extraction obtained by utilising the sources of warming, &c., 
the minimum air space may be fairly taken at 600 cubic 
feet. This is the amount of authorised regulation space 
allowed for each soldier in barracks, and in practice it is 
found to be adequate. Of course, sick persons require more 
air space, and children less. 

As I cubic foot of good coal-gas produces about 2 cubic 
feet of carbonic acid, besides other noxious gas, when burn- 
ing, and an ordinary gas-burner will burn nearly 3 feet per 
hour, the necessity of providing special ventilation for gas- 
lights will be apparent. 



G 



82 



The forces affecting natural ventilation are: (i) Diffusion, 
■which is always going on through brick and stone walls, 
through ceilings and wood floors, and the crevices in 
joiners' work; (2) the winds, which are powerful agents, 
but difficult to regulate ; and (3) the difference in weight of 
air of unequal temperatures. 

The only arrangements necessary to allow full play to 
diffusion are to build with proper materials, to keep the 
house dry, and to paint, varnish, &c., sparingly. 

Much may be done, and is done to utilise the action of 
the winds. A moving body of air sets in motion air in its 
vicinity. It drives the air before it, and at the same time 
causes a partial vacuum on all sides of it, towards which the 
neighbouring air flows. Thus, air blowing over a chimney 
causes a current up the chimney, and advantage is taken of 
this aspirating power to cause a movement up a tube. On 
the other hand, a tube may be made to terminate in a large 
•cowl turning to the wind, and bring air into the house to be 
■distributed to the rooms, usually after being warmed in the 
basement. 

The difference in the weight of air of unequal tempera- 
tures is a great force, the wind itself being caused by it. 
The ventilation caused by a fire in a room is due to this, 
.and it is a power much utilised in systematic ventilation. 

Extracting air by means of a screw or steam jet, or 
■driving it in with a large fan, are not methods of ventilation 
ordinarily resorted to in domestic buildings. In this 
climate it is usually possible to ventilate a house sufficiently 
by utilising the forces acting in natural ventilation, and, as 
already stated, the sources of warming and lighting. 

What is to be done then as regards ventilating the home, 
large or small ? In every room, and certainly also in the 
staircase-well, provision must be made for the admission of 



83 



a sufficient supply of fresh air, and the passing out of foul 
air. 

Two fresh air inlets have already been referred to : the 
cold air supply to the grate, and the window inlet, obtained 
by placing a board on the sill under the lower sash, thus 
allowing the passage of an upward current of air between 
the meeting rails of the two sashes. Two other approved 
inlets are Sherringham's ventilators and Tobin's tubes. 
The Sherringham ventilator or valve, as represented in 
Fig. 27, is usually placed at the upper part of a room. It is 
an iron frame, about the length and height of a brick, fitted 
with a hopper-shaped valve opening. The air passes to it 




Fig. 27. 

through a perforated iron plate, and then is directed 
upwards. The valve opening can be closed. The tubes 
ordinarily called Tobin's are vertical, opening to the outer 
air through gratings near the floor, and carried up to a 
height of not less than five feet, where they deliver the air 
upwards. The form of one of these tubes is shown in 
section in Fig. 28. Sufificient fresh cold air is readily supplied 
through inlets of either pattern, if enough be provided. If 
both were provided the Sherringham ventilators would act as 
outlets. The inlet for air warmed at the back of the grate 
(already referred to) is most useful, and should be given in 
addition to the inlets by Tobin's tubes or Sherringham's 
ventilators. 

G 2 



84 



It is important to note that in arranging fresh-air inlets 
they should be so placed that the purest air obtainable near 
the house should be drawn in. Town air commonly 
requires to be freed from blacks by passing it through a 
filter of cotton wool half-an-inch thick, placed lightly 
between wire frames, and changed two or three times a 
month. The inlets should deliver not less than five feet- 
from the ground, and as far as possible from foul-air 
outlets. 




Fig. 28. 



Hopper ventilators in windows and louvred panes are not 
inlets well adapted for the ventilation of rooms in a dwelling- 
house. 

All rooms having open fire-grates possess good foul-air 
outlets in their chimney flues. The " Globe " gas-burner 
fittings provide another excellent foul-air outlet. However, 
every room should have an opening in the upper part of the 
room into a chimney flue, or, better still, a special venti- 



8s 



lating tube capped with a cowl arranged to move round and 
present its back to the wind. If the opening be into the 
chimney flue it should be protected by Dr. Arnott's valve 
{;vide Fig. 29), which consists of an oblong metal frame, 




Fig. 29. 



inserted in the flue near the ceihng, and having a light flap 
to prevent down-draughts of smoke; or by Boyle's improve- 
ment of Arnott's valve, which is provided with a talc flap 
and is self-acting. 




Fig. 30. 



A fanlight of good size over the front door affords ingress 
to the fresh air enough to ventilate a small hall and 
staircase wells. Additional ingress may be given by Tobin's 
tubes. In some convenient place near the top of the stairs 



86 



should be fixed and carried through the roof a divided tube 
(Watson's ventilator), or two tubes, one within the other 
(Mackinnel's ventilator), or a tube divided into four parts, 
having louvred sides all round at the top (Muir's ventilator), 
or some similar contrivance. Perhaps Mackinnell's venti- 
lator is the best inlet and outlet ventilator. A diagram is 
given (Fig. 30) showing this apparatus in action. 

It is scarcely necessary to say that all ventilating appliances 
need to be regularly examined and cleaned out. 

In conclusion, the question may be asked : How is one to 
be sure that the ventilation of a room or house is sufficient ? 
There is no better way, as already indicated, than by enter- 
ing it from the external air. If there be any difference 
between the indoor air and the outside air in point of fresh- 
ness the room or house is not well ventilated. Provided 
there be no over-crowding, the ventilators are not acting 
properly, or they are insufficient. 



CHAPTER VII. 



Hot and Cold Water. 

Power of Selection Limited — Sources of Supply — Rain Water — 
River Walter — Spring Water — Shallow and Deep Wells — 
Pollation in Transit : mineral and organic — -Cisterns, their 
position, construction, and size — Expansion and Contraction 
of Water — The Ball Tap — Filtering — Filters and Cleansing 
— Hardness, temporary and permanent — Softening Hard 
Water — Service Pipes — Danger from Lead Pipes — Substi- 
stutes for Lead Pipes — -Taps from Mains to be so marked — ■ 
Hot-water Service — Arrangement of Pipes. 

Comparatively few householders can exercise any powers 
of selection as to their water supply. They must accept 
what the local Company or Corporation delivers them. In 
this respect it often happens that dwellers in towns are more 
fortunate than rural folk, who often draw their supply from 
shallow wells or collect it from the roof The water supplied 
by a Company or Corporation ordinarily comes from one of 
the best available sources, is freed from gross impurities, 
stored in a cleanly manner, and periodically analysed, so 
that the best and worst of it are apparent. The receiver, 
therefore, has some guarantee that the water is potable, any 
defect in it (such as undue hardness) is known, and can 
usually be remedied, and his duty in respect of it is 
commonly limited to seeing that it is not polluted after 
delivery. Not so the country householder. His duty is to 
inquire into the source from which his supply is derived, 
and get it analysed from time to time. It may also become 



88 



his duty to search for and obtain purer water. It is thus 
convenient to consider first the — 

Sources of Supply.— As all water comes from the clouds, 
it is originally pure, but in falling it washes the impurities 
out of the air, and soot, dust, and other solid dirt off the 
roofs and trees. On the ground and under ground it parts 
with some of its impurities, but takes up others. Water not 
only dissolves salts and holds solid impurities in suspension, 
but absorbs ammonia, nitric and hydrochloric acid, sul- 
phurous and sulphuric acid, and the gases of the atmo- 
sphere. Thus rain when collected from clean rock in 
thinly-populated districts, where the air is free from noxious 
vapours and gases, and solid impurities, may be as pure a 
water supply as is attainable. In towns, and especially in 
large towns, rain is not a pure supply. However, rain-water, 
owing to its softness, is so convenient for washing, that it is 
generally worth the trouble of collecting. There is an 
apphance by which the first washings of the roof are re- 
jected, but even then what is collected is so impure that it 
should be received into a settling tank, and from that 
passed on through a strainer of gravel and sand into the 
cistern from which it is drawn. The settling-tank must be 
cleaned out, and the strainer renewed from time to time. 

As regards river water, it is ordinarily more impure than 
rain. The rain going through porous strata is given out in 
springs, but commonly only a small part of the river is 
spring water, the greater part is rain drained from the land, 
and carrying with it impurities from the soil. In towns, 
rivers are liable to be polluted in three ways. Rain may 
drain into them from a surface soil and subsoil saturated 
with impurity, sewers and house drains may deliver into 
them, and trade waste products may be discharged into 
them. 



89 



Natural springs come from an underground reservoir of 
water, and when available, are likely to yield the best and 
purest supply. It is, of course, preferable for the spring 
to be well above the level of the house, so as to save the 
cost and trouble of pumping. 

If no spring be within reach, the best source is ordinarily 
a well, and if there be no well ready to hand, a capable 
geologist should be consulted as to where good water can 
be obtained at a reasonable depth, and when a well is sunk 
clean material should be used in its construction, and the 
surface soil water cut off from the deep water by carefully 
casing the well and puddling behind the casing. Naturally 
the water obtained will vary in purity according to the nature 
and amount of the soluble matters in the ground through 
which the well draws its supply. Shallow wells are always 
liable to be contaminated by animal and vegetable matter in 
or on the surface soil. Deep well water is generally good, 
but is not of equal purity all the year round, and the upper 
portion may differ from that which lies below. Thus the 
water drawn up in a bucket may be bad in colour and con- 
tain many impurities, while water pumped from the bottom 
of the same well may be colourless and pure; the latter 
would represent the real well water, the former a layer of 
lighter water from the surface drainage which should have 
been kept out. Well water is also sometimes soft near the 
top and hard near the bottom. 

If the householder obtains his supply from a private well, 
or a spring or stream, it is important to have a sample 
analysed from time to time that he may be assured of its 
purity, as clear, bright-looking spring water may be quite 
unfit to drink. 

Water delivered by Companies or Corporations is obtained 
from deep wells or rivers or gathering grounds, in some 



go 

"instances very large impounding reservoirs being made. It 
is freed more or less completely from suspended matters, 
stored, and raised to a sufficient height for distribution by 
gravitation. 

The quantity of water required is estimated to be not less 
than fifteen gallons per head per day. 

Pollution in transit.— Water pure at the source may in 
transit to the consumer be polluted with mineral matters, or 
with animal or vegetable substances classed together as 
organic matter. Both kinds of impurity are to some extent 
dissolved, but in large proportion merely suspended in the 
water. In open conduits water is specially liable to be con- 
taminated. A species of purification goes on, however, at 
the same time by means of subsidence, the action of plants 
and oxidation. Water conveyed in pipes may be fouled by 
contiguous leaking sewers or gas pipes, by the material used 
to caulk the joints, or by the lead or iron of which the 
pipes are made. 

To prevent pollution reservoirs should be covered and 
kept clean, and the inner surface of metal pipes should be 
coated with something that water will not act on. Many 
materials, as pitch, will effectually protect iron. The best 
lining for lead pipes is glass. Neither hemp nor any 
organic matter should be used in jointing the pipes. To 
prevent sewer gas or coal gas being sucked into the pipes 
they should be tight, and the water service should be con- 
stant. 

Cisterns. — Every house, whatever the source of supply, 
should have a store cistern. Even if the service be con- 
stant, as it should be, there will be times (as while repairs 
are in progress) when no water can be obtained from the 
main. A store cistern, therefore, may be regarded as a 
necessity, and the questions to be discussed next are: — 



91 



Where shall it be placed ? What shall it be made of? and 
How large shall it be ? 

Water stored above ground varies much in temperature, 
which is a disadvantage ; stored under ground it is readily 
maintained at a low, even temperature. If the cistern be 
above ground the water may get quite warm during the day. 
giving off oxygen, &c., and when at night it cools and its 
capacity for absorbing gases is much increased, it may 
absorb ammonia from the stables, or sewer gas from a 
contiguous sewer ventilator. Water in cisterns above 
ground has been found to vary from 7i| deg. to 33! deg. 
Fah., when water in a well has been found to range merely 
between 51J deg. and 50I deg. Fah. If, as is commonly 
the case, it is not practicable to place the cistern under- 
ground, it should be put in as cool a place as possible, 
accessible, of course, sheltered from the sun, and provided 
with a cover. It is well to set apart a small room on the 
north side of the house as a cistern-room. 

As regards construction, the cheapest good material 
available is said to be wrought iron or steel. It may be 
coated inside with oil paint made with magnetic oxide of 
iron, or, better still, with a vitreous glaze (enamelling), and 
the outside may be pitched. Probably the strongest and 
most durable cisterns are made of slab slate, cement-joined, 
and bolted together with iion. Excellent cisterns are now 
made of glazed stoneware. The material is well adapted 
for cisterns of no great size. These stoneware cisterns 
are always tight, unaffected by the water, easily cleansed, 
and not dear. 

The size of the cistern should be carefully considered 
with reference to the requirements of each household. The 
difference in the amount of water required depends mainly 
upon the number of baths taken. A family using baths 



92 

frequently may need a supply of 60 gallons a head daily 
but this IS quite exceptional. It has been stated that the 
allowance per head per day should be not less than 15 
gallons. Supposing there were six persons in the house the 
supply for a day would be 90 gallons, and as the water might 
be cut off for five consecutive days, a cistern for such a 
household should hold not less than 450 gallons. Now a 
cubic foot of water contains 6J gallons, so the cistern should 
have a holding capacity of 72 cubic feet, that is, should be 
about 5 feet by 4 feet by 4 feet, as a cistern would only be 
filled to within about 5 inches of the top. A hundred- 
weight of water occupying a space equal to if cubic feet, 
a cistern constructed to hold 72 cubic feet of water must be 
strong enough to carry a weight of two tons. 

As to expansion and contraction, it is useful to remember 
that water in cooling becomes denser until it reaches 39 deg. 
Fah., and after this it expands till it freezes. In the act of 
freezing it expands considerably, as the frequent bursting 
of water pipes in frosty weather attests. 

The regular systematic cleansing of cisterns must be 
attended to. How often this will be needed depends on 
the position of the cistern and the nature of the water 
therein. Generally, if the cistern is kept covered, it will be 
sufficient to clean it once in three months. 

It is a well-recognised rule that no store cistern should 
serve a water-closet direct. Separate service cisterns are 
provided, and these deliver a measured flush of two gallons 
or more as required. It would be better if the minimum 
flush were fixed at three gallons. 

The supply of water to a cistern is, as is well known, regu- 
lated by a ball-tap. The householder should give attention 
to this, as all self-acting apparatus needs some attention. 
The ball should be large and weighted to float nearly half 



93 



immersed. The tap should be easily turned and open fully 
at a light lowering of the ball, and to prevent noise when the 
the water is delivered the nozzle of the tap should be con- 
tinued to near the bottom of the cistern, and .syphonage 
prevented by an air-hole. 

An overflow pipe should be provided for the cistern, and 
this must not be connected with any dram or waste-pipe. 
It should be a short pipe terminating externally, so as to 
give immediate warning if waste occurs. 

Filtering. — The question is often asked — Ought we to 
filter our water ? And it is not possible to give an answer 
generally applicable. If really good water is supplied, water 
that would fall under class i, as defined by Dr. Parkes,* it 
certainly does not need filtration. If it contain suspended 
inorganic impurities, such as clay, &c., filtering through a 
sponge and fine sand will generally remove them. If it 
contain organic matter in suspension and solution, beyond 
mere traces, it becomes a question whether the supply is 
sufficiently good for drinking purposes. However, there 
may be, and often are, waters of usable quality, which con- 
stitute a fairly efficient supply, and yet contain enough 
organic matter to make domestic filtration desirable. A 
good filter in such a case is that known as the silicated 



* It should be transparent, without suspended matters, smell, or 
taste, and be well aerated. The total solids should not exceed 
8 grains per gallon, of which only i should be dissipated by heat, 
unless it be a chalk water, in which case the total solids should not 
exceed 14 grains per gallon of calcium carbonate, and should con- 
tain only traces of calcium sulphate. The matter destructible by 
heat (allowance being made for the decomposition of calcium car- 
bonate) should be under i grain and should scarcely blacken ; the 
indications of nitrites should be absent; of nitrates and free 
ammonia extremely slight; the amount of albuminoid ammonia 
should not be more than • 0056 grains per gallon. 



94 



carbon filter, and another is the spongy iron filter. If 
under any circumstances the householder were compelled 
to use a really suspicious water, no filter short of M. 
Pasteur's could be considered safe. When there is any 
reason to fear the supply may be contaminated, it is wise 
to take the precaution of boiling all water to be used for 
drinking. As boiled water is flat, it is improved by being 
passed through a filter of gravel and sand to freshen and 
aerate it. Again, should the only supply even for drinking 
purposes be rain water, it is improved by filtering through 
sand and animal charcoal. 

It is most important to impress upon householders that a 
filtering medium will only retain its power for a limited 
time — the time depending on the amount of impurity in the 
water and the rate of filtration. No filter can possibly act 
month after month without losing its efficiency. The 
organic matter it gathers out of the water is putrescible, 
and if this be left week by week to clog the filter, the water 
passed through it becomes fouler instead of purer. The 
apparatus, as has been aptly said, ceases to be a water filter 
and becomes a water filther. Some filtering materials can 
be cleansed by fire, others in running water, others when 
once foul require to be renewed. Certainly it may be laid 
down as a rule that no filter should be used that does not 
admit of being thoroughly cleansed. 

Softening hard water. — The terms " hardness " and " soft- 
ness " refer to the soap-destroying powers of a water. Soap 
is an alkaline stearate, palmitate, or oleate, and the addition 
of lime, magnesia, etc., decomposes it. As hard water 
contains these it is difficult to obtain a lather with it, much 
of the soap being decomposed and wasted. Hardness is 
described as temporary or permanent. Temporary hardness 
is due to the presence of carbonates, which are almost 



95 



insoluble in pure water, but freely soluble in water contain- 
ing carbonic acid. When the water is boiled the carbonic 
acid is driven off and the carbonates are thrown down. So 
temporary hardness is the hardness which is removed by 
boiling the water. Permanent hardness is chiefly due to 
sulphates, and is not removed by boiling. The amount of 
hardness is tested for by ascertaining how much of a 
solution of soap of known strength is required to form a 
lather which will last for five minutes. Hardness is ex- 
pressed in degrees, each degree theoretically representing a 
grain of carbonate of lime (or its equivalent in soap- 
destroying power) in a gallon of water. A sample is first 
tested to ascertain the initial hardness, and then a sample 
is tested which has been boiled briskly for half an hour, 
made up to the original bulk with distilled water, and 
filtered and cooled, to ascertain the permanent hardness. 
The difference between the two gives the temporary hard- 
ness. Chalk waters are notoriously hard waters, and may 
be cheaply and easily softened by adding lime. 

Chalk is carbonate of lime, and if a pound were burnt 
9 oz. of lime would remain, and 7 oz. of carbonic acid 
would be driven off. The 9 oz. might be dissolved in 40 
gallons of water, but the pound of chalk could not be 
dissolved in a hundred times as much water. However if 
7 oz. of carbonic acid were added to the pound of chalk in 
water, it would be changed into bicarbonate of lime and 
become readily soluble. Suppose the quantity of water 
containing the i lb. of chalk and 7 oz. of carbonic acid 
were 400 gallons, the mixture would be similar to the hard 
well water from the chalk. To soften this add the 40 
gallons of water containing the 9 oz. of lime, and the 
result will be the formation of 2 lb. chalk. This is but 
slightly soluble, and about ten-elevenths of it would be 



96 



thrown down, and a hard water converted into a soft one. 
As all the hardness of water from the chalk is not due to 
chalk, more than one-eleventh part would remain, still by 
means of this process iS degrees of hardness in water may 
often be reduced to three or four degrees. Water more 
than twice as hard as this would not be objected to on the 
score of hardness. 

Service pipes. — Reference has already been made to the 
material of which pipes are made. Lead should not be 
used for conveying a water having a solvent power on lead. 
Water containing oxygen acts on lead, forming oxide of 
lead, which is to some extent soluble in pure water. 
Carbonic acid, however, if present in sufficient quantity, 
makes the oxide into carbonate of lead, which is but 
slightly soluble. Rain water and most soft water take up 
lead. Hard water, on the other hand, does not act on lead, 
but coats the pipes with a protective lining. Peaty water 
also leaves a deposit on the pipes protecting them. Lead 
has yet other defects. It is very heavy and has no stiffness, 
so that if fastened to the wall with metal clasps it " bags ' 
between the clasps, and it is also much affected by variations 
of temperature. Lead-encased block tin pipes (not tinned 
lead pipes) are an improvement on lead pipes, and do not 
affect water injuriously, but great care is needed in jointing, 
and this should be done by means of screw couplings. 
Glass-lined pipes, already noticed, are stiff, and present a 
smooth inner surface unaffected by water. If they could be 
readily bent they would leave nothing to be desired. Good 
serviceable pipes for both hot and cold water are made of 
copper, the only bar to their more general use being their 
relatively high cost. Iron pipes, which may be tar-varnished 
(Angus Smith's method) or bi-oxidised (the Bower-Barff 
process) to prevent them rusting, are safe and economical. 



97 



Wrought iron pipes are better than cast iron pipes, and are 
easily cut, bent, and jointed, 

As regards the position of pipes, it is a first necessity so 
to place them that they will not be exposed to frost. Open 
spaces, cold cellars, and outside walls should be avoided, 
and when pipes must be put in exposed places they should 
be carefully packed round with felt or some other good 
non-conductor of heat. It is obvious also that the pipes 
should be so placed that the sound of the water coming 
in will not prove an annoyance. Again, there should 
be as few branches as possible, and these as short as 
possible, and each branch should be given off at an acute 
angle — never at a right angle. Cold water will be required 
for the scullery sink and pantry sink, bath and lavatory, 
store cistern and the separate service cisterns for flushing the 
closets. The service to the scullery sink and pantry sink 
should be from the main ; there should also be a tap from 
the main in the upper part of the house, or the servants 
will fill the bedroom carafes from a bath-tap served from 
the cistern. Every tap from which water is drawn 
from the main should bear the word MAIN stamped 
on it. 

The supply pipe should be taken up to the house at least 
2 feet under ground to protect it from frost, and should (after 
it enters the house) be fitted with a screw-down arrange- 
ment or stop valve for cutting off the water during repairs. 

Horizontal pipes should be laid on continuous wooden 
supports with a regular slope, enough to drain the water 
from the pipes when it is desired to empty them on the 
approach of a severe frost. Vertical pipes should be 
screwed to wood rather than directly to the wall. They 
should be fastened by lead flaps (technically "band tacks") 
passing over the pipes. 

H 



98 



Hot-water service is needed for the kitchen, scullery sink, 
pantry sink, bath, and lavatory. The water is ordinarily 



COVER 

A 




Fig. 31. 

heated by means of a suitable boiler at the back of the 
kitchen fire, and stored in a hot-water cylindei connected 
therewith by circulating pipes. 



99 



The boiler should be quite smooth inside, the angles and 
•corners being rounded off so that no air may lodge within. 
Iron soon roughens from the action of the water, and copper 
is therefore a better material for this boiler. In every case 
•an access hole for cleansing, properly protected, should be 
provided. A pipe, securely stopped with a screw cap, 
should be taken from the lowest point, for emptying the 
toiler previous to repairs. The outflow pipe to the cylinder 
should be taken from the very lowest point. The return 
pipe may be entered at the top or back, and should be 
•continued within the boiler by a short length of pipe. The 
hot-water cylinder (a copper one is preferable) should be 
fixed not far from the boiler, but of course on a higher 
level, and access to every part of it and to the outside 
should be provided. The boiler outflow and return pipes 
should be connected at the bottom of the cylinder, and the 
■supply of cold water from the store cistern should also be 
led in here. At the highest point of the cylinder the expan- 
sion pipe should be connected and go right up. It may 
terminate over the cold-water cistern, or above the roof, the 
•end being against the kitchen chimney, so that it will not 
get blocked with snow or ice. Indeed, care should be 
taken that every part of the hot-water system is protected 
from frost. From the expansion pipe the hot-water service 
pipes required can be branched. The arrangement as 
described will, perhaps, be more readily understood by 
reference to the illustration, Fig. 31. 

Noise occurring in connection with the hot-water service 
is commonly due to air in the boiler, or deposit, choking 
one of the pipes between it and the cylinder. It may 
indicate danger, and it is certainly not safe to neglect the 
■warning. 

The shape of the boiler, instead of being like an upright 

H 2 



box, often roughly resembles a very broad boot, the toe- 
coming forward into the fire. This is a convenient shape- 
when the space at the back of the fire is very limited, and a. 
somewhat larger surface is thus presented for heating. 

All boilers need cleansing from time to time, and often 
their not heating properly is found to be due to the thick 
incrustations all over the inside. 

All pipes, especially those conveying hot water, should be 
allowed plenty of room for expansion and contraction. 



CHAPTER VIII 



\ Sanitary Requisites. 

Drainage — House Drains — Minimum Fall — Drains beneath Build- 
ings — Drain Joints — Testing the House Drains — Disconnec- 
tion of House Drains from Sewers — Fresh-air Inlet — Disposa 
of Eain-water — Soil-pipe — Ventilator for Soil-pipe — " Con- 
tainers " and "D Traps" condemned — The Simplest Form 
of Closet — The Valve Closet — Boxing-in objectionable — 
Separate Service Cisterns — Baths and Lavatories — Scullery 
and Pantry Sinks — Grease Traps — Gully Traps. 

The sanitary requirements of a house may be conveniently 
considered under two headings: (i) The drainage, and (2) 
the sanitary fittings. 

Drainage.- — Some reference was made in Chapter II. to 
draining the subsoil of the site of a house, when the damp- 
ness of the site renders such a precaution necessary. The 
subsoil drain is constructed of earthenware field pipes, and 
designed to take in water at every joint. It has been ruled 
that the fall, or slope, of this drain should not be less than 
I in 220, but, if practicable, it is well to give a fall of at 
least I in 120. The subsoil drain must not be connected 
directly with any sewer or cesspool, or with any drain to be 
used for conveying sewage. 

House Drains must be laid outside the house as far as 
possible. They should be made of glazed earthenware 
pipes, provided with flanges, and tightly jointed all round 
with cement and should be laid in a bed of good concrete. 
When a connection has to be made a suitable junction-pipe 
should be used, so that one drain shall join the other at an 
acute angle. The internal diameter of the pipes is usually 



102 



6 inches ; but in the case of small houses, pipes having a 
diameter of 4 inches may be used. Great difference of 
opinion exists as to the minimum fall or slope which should 
be required in constructing a house drain, as the " Model 
Bye-laws " merely direct that such a drain shall have " a 
proper fall." For instance, one authority gives the mini- 
mum fall as follows : — 

For 4 inch pipes i inch in 12 feet = i in 144 
For 6 ,, ,, 18 feet = i in 216 

For 9 ,, ,, 27 feet = i in 324 

It is calculated that if drains with this very slight fall were 
running half full, or full, their speed of flow would be 144 
feet per minute, which would be sufficient to keep them free 
from deposit. However, it rarely happens that drains are 
running half full, or even a quarter full, so that to be self- 
cleansing they must have a much greater fall than this. The 
distance from the house to the sewer (at least in urbar^ 
districts) is, as a rule, not very great, and it is of the utmost 
importance that it should be kept clean, so that it scarcely 
seems unreasonable to require a fall, if possible, of i in 48. 
A drain pipe is 2 feet long, therefore each pipe should be 
laid with the end directed towards the sewer, half an inch 
lower that the other end. 

When it is not practicable to take the drain outside and 
it has to pass under the basement, it must be laid in a direct 
line for the whole distance beneath the building, and be 
completely embedded in and covered with good concrete,, 
at least 6 inches thick all round. A drain thus passing 
under the basement must be ventilated at each end of the 
portion under the house. Of course no basement floor may 
in any case be at a level below that of the outfall of the 
drains. The basement floor, as already stated, should be 



IC3 

drained by being made to slope to an area, the drainage 
delivering by a channel on a trap in the area. 

Great care is required, in making the drain joints, to pre- 
vent the cement projecting inside. Some skilled pipe layers 
make a sort of piston of cloth at the end of a stick to rub 
off projections. When the pipe is in position the piston is 
piit in, and the pipe socket cemented over. The next pipe 
is passed over the piston rod or stick, and the joint finished. 
Finally, the piston is drawn through the new joint, clearing 
away any cement from the inside. 

There is a patent bituminous joint, much in use at 
present, that seems quite satisfactory. Pipes are prepared 
with the ends fitted with collars of the preparation. The 
collar is slightly softened by wiping it with an oily cloth, 
and the pipe ends are then pushed together. The joints 
are perfectly water-tight, and remain tight even after slight 
settlement of the ground. 

There is no objection to iron pipes being used for house 
drains instead of glazed stoneware pipes. When thus used, 
the iron should be coated with a preparation to prevent 
rusting. 

After the house drain is laid it should be carefully tested, 
or the householder has no security that all the joints are 
tight. There are three recognised methods of testing a 
drain. The lower end and outlets may be closed and the 
drain filled with water. If the level of the water sinks at the 
upper end, leaking of one or more of the joints is indicated. 
The ventilators and both ends of the drain may be closed 
and the drain filled with smoke. Any of the joints pene- 
trated by the smoke are imperfect. Oil of pepperment 
poured in at a closet in the house should not be perceptible 
to smell anywhere along the drain. 

Every house drain directly communicating with a sewer 



104 



must be fitted with a suitable trap (to prevent the passage 
of sewer gases into the drain) at a point as distant as practi- 
cable from the house, and a fresh-air inlet must be provided 
on the house side of the trap. In planning the drains of a 
large house it is better that this fresh-air inlet should be a 
properly-constructed manhole, going down to the drain and 
forming a disconnecting chamber into which branch drains 




can deliver. Figs. 32 and 33 show a suitable disconnecting 
chamber in section and plan, with a branch drain delivering 
into the open channel which traverses the floor of the 
chamber. Such a disconnecting chamber is ordinarily 
covered with a grating so as to afford the necessary air 
communication with the drains for purposes of ventilation ; 
but if under exceptional circumstances it is thought 
necessary to use a solid cover, an alternative opening ior 



I05 

<irain ventilation may be formed by a pipe through one 
side communicating with an air shaft above ground. 

In small houses it is commonly sufficient to insert in the 
•course of the drain near the boundary of the premises, a 











1 




1 






} 1 


MAIN *■ OnAlll| 


TO StWER v-y-^ 

















Fig. 33. 

trap similar to the one shown in Fig. 34. The sewer 
inlet, it will be noticed, is well above the outlet of the trap, 
increasing the force of the flow through the trap. The 
fresh-air inlet is just above, and is to be continued by pipes 



OPEN 




Fig. 34. 

to the ground level. It also gives access to the trap, 
enabling it to be cleaned. The opening just over the 
outlet is for cleaning the drain between the drain and the 
the sewer. Ordinarily the opening is kept closed. The flat 
■bottom of the trap goes far to ensure its being fixed level. 



io6 

Every inlet to the drain which is not an opening for the 
ventilation of the drain must be properly trapped. 

Soil-pipes and traps receiving yard drainage, waste water, 
&c., must have their weight properly supported, and be- 
properly connected with cement joints, suitable curved 
pipes and junction pipes being used as required. Greasy 
water should not be received directly into a drain, but 
through a grease trap. 

The drain of every house should deliver separately into 
a sewer. 

The rain gathered in the roof gutters and conducted in 
the down spouts, may be dealt with in three ways :— It may 
be taken into a catchment cistern for use, or conveyed 
separately into a water-course or other place, or delivered 
on or in a suitable trap discharging into a house drain. 

Water - closets and Soil - pipes form the only direct 
communications between the inside of a house and the 
house-drains. 

The soil-pipe should pass directly from the closet trap 
through the wall, and down the outside of the house to the 
house drain. It should be made of lead or iron, and four 
inches in diameter. Under exceptional circumstances a 
pipe having a diameter of 3I or 3 inches may be allowed. 
The objection to lead pipes is that they easily get bent, and 
are gnawed by rats, and corroded by chloride of lime and 
other disinfectants. The objection to iron pipes is that it is 
difficult to coat them so as effectually to prevent rust, and 
the joints do not remain perfect like well-made wiped joints 
on a lead pipe. To ventilate the soil-pipe a pipe of the 
same diameter should be taken up without bends from the 
highest point where it comes through the wall, and terminate 
at least two feet above the roof eaves, care being taken that 
the end is not near any dormer window or opening in the 



107 

roof. The soil-pipe ventilator end should be protected to- 
prevent birds nesting in it. Soil-pipes and their ventilators 
should be securely fastened to the wall, or by their weight 
they may drag open a closet trap, or the connection there- 
with. The fresh-air inlet on the house drain enables the 
soil-pipe ventilator to act, the air current will generally be 
from the inlet along the drain, and up the soil-pipe and 
ventilator, but sometimes it will be reversed. f 

Water-closets and their fittings should be of the simplest 
description practicable. All pan-closets having so-called 
"containers" interposed between the basin and trap are 
objectionable. The container and pan which it contains- 
soon become foul, and the only way of efficiently cleansing 
them is by taking them out and heating them sufficiently to- 
burn off all impurities. The trap, which in time past used 
ordinarily to be placed under the pan-closet, was equally 
objectionable. It consisted of a leaden box in the form of 
a D, with a pipe dipping in from the top at one side, and a 
pipe leading out at the other. It was always foul, and the 
contents often acted upon the lead and penetrated it.. 
The simplest form of closet apparatus is a basin and trap- 
all in one piece, made of glazed stoneware. The basin,, 
indeed, forms the upper part of the S trap, the lower end of 
the trap being continuous with the soil-pipe. The flushing 
water is delivered straight into the trap, and on the other side 
of the water seal is a hole for fixing a short ventilating pipe 
between the stoneware trap and the soil-pipe ventilator. 
This ventilates what would be a "dead end," and acts as an 
anti-syphonage pipe preventing the unsealing of the trap. 
In most houses now the old pan-closet has given place to- 
the valve-closet, and the old D trap has been replaced by a 
properly made S trap. Such an apparatus answers well, 
with the help of a good flush and a little attention. Indeed,, 



io8 

•a trap beneath the basin is not an absolute necessity. The 
bottom of the basin may be closed by a valve, enabling it 
to retain the required quantity of water. When the valve 
is open, the contents of the basin pass into the soil-pipe. 
This simple form of closet apparatus is undoubtedly in use, 
and working satisfactorily in some houses. However, dis- 
pensing with the water-closet trap is scarcely safe, and not 
to be generally recommended. Moreover, the closet de- 
iscribed, with the basin and trap all in one piece, is simpler 
-and cleaner than any valve-closet. 

Boxing-in of the apparatus with woodwork is needless 
■and uncleanly. An oval ring of hard wood should be pro- 
•vided to cover the margin of the basin, and this should be 
hinged at the back, so that it may be lifted up when the 
•basin is used as a urinal. 

Each closet should be flushed with a separate service 
■cistern, delivering three gallons rapidly at each flush. 
"Though the basin and trap of a closet should be as far as 
.possible self-cleansing, they should have attention daily, 
^nd be kept clean. 

Of course, every closet in a house should be against an 
■external wall, and be ventilated by one or two air bricks 
•built into the wall. A window opening directly to the 
•external air should be provided, the dimensions of which 
:should not be less than 2 feet by i foot. 

Baths and Lavatories. — Baths may be made of slab slate, 
lead, copper, iron, or glazed stoneware. If slate be used, 
iit must be made as carefully as a slate cistern, and jointed 
with cement. Lead is weak and very heavy, and soon gets 
•out of shape. Copper makes an excellent bath, and owing 
to its good conducting powers warms readily above the 
3evel of the warm water. Iron well painted or — better — 
•t-namelled, makes a good bath, and it is comparatively 



109 

cheap. For cleanliness and durability there is probably 
nothing superior to a glazed stoneware bath of the best 
quality. 

The bath should have a service of hot and cold water 
delivered through screw-down taps. The waste-pipe should 
be from 2 inches to 2-|- inches in diameter, and should be 
trapped with a S trap. The overflow pipe should be con- 
nected with the waste pipe between the bath and the trap. 
The waste pipe should be carried down outside the house^ 
and deliver on a gully trap. 

Lavatory basins are ordinarily made of glazed earthenware 
or enamelled iron, and are similar to baths in their require- 
ments. Each basin should have two screw-down taps for 
hot and cold water. The waste pipes (a pipe of i inclij 
diameter is large enough) should be trapped with a S trap.. 
The overflow pipe should be connected with the waste pipe 
between the basin and trap. The waste pipe should be- 
carried down outside the house, and delivered on a gully- 
trap. 

Baths and lavatories should be in rooms against an> 
external wall, and should be properly ventilated and lighted. 
It is better that the apparatus should not be boxed in with 
woodwork. 

Sinks, perhaps, hardly come within the description of 
sanitary fittings as ordinarily understood, but it is convenient, 
to consider them here. There is commonly one situated ia 
the scullery and one in the pantry. 

The sink in the scullery is often made of soft stone, which, 
soon becomes foul with grease, and cannot be cleansed. 
There are many suitable materials for scullery sinks, as slate,, 
enamelled iron and glazed stoneware. The last-named 
makes the best and cheapest slopstone. 

The sink in the pantry is not often made of slates or 



I 10 



•stone, but of lead, enamelled iron, or glazed stoneware. 
Xead gets dirty and soon out of shape. Iron or stoneware 

sinks are liable to break the china when it is being washed. 

Probably the best material is copper or sheet block tin, laid 
•over a strong wooden casing made to the shape required 

not too deep and well rounded off at the corners. The 
stable round the sink should be covered with the same metal. 

Both scullery and pantry sink should be placed against an 
external wall under a window. They should both have a 




Fig. 35. 

'pair of screw-down taps, one for hot water and one for cold 
water from the main. The waste pipe should be at least 
\\ inches in diameter, trapped with a S trap, having an 
:access hole, to cleanse it, provided with a screw stopper. The 
waste pipe should be taken through the external wall, and 
-deliver on a gully trap. 

It has been already pointed out that greasy water should 
inot be directly discharged into a drain. A grease-trap is a 



Ill 



very simple apparatus, and if cleaned once a day (as it 
should be) gives very little trouble. Such traps are made 
in various forms. The one ordinarily in use consists of a 
chamber, which may be about a foot square and 15 inches 
deep. It has an inlet pipe delivering near the top, and an 




Fig. 36. 



outlet opposite and at the same level, but the mouth of 
which is turned down to near the bottom of the chamber. 
For large establishments grease traps are made much larger, 
and provided with Field's arrangement for automatic flush 
ing. Of this kind is the stoneware trap made by Doulton 



112 



shown in section (Fig. 35). A is the body of the trap, 
where the grease is retained ; E the inner chamber, where 
the water, free from grease, rises ; C and B form the selL 
discharging annular syphon ; and D is the basin into which 
the end of the syphon dips, forming a trap. A grease trap 
may be used to receive the discharge from the waste pipe 
directly, or preferably through a small gully trap. A ven- 
tilating pipe should be connected at the side, and the 
chamber should have a movable cover. 

The gully trap placed at the inlet to any yard or area 
drain, or on which any rain spout delivers, or on which any 
sink waste pipe (not discharging greasy water) may deliver, 
is to be made of iron or glazed stoneware. It should be 
not less than 12 inches deep and 7 inches in diameter, and 
its outlet pipe should be not less than 3 inches in diameter. 
It should hold 7 inches or 8 inches of water, and the depth 
of trapping water (water which would have to evaporate 
before the water seal would be broken) should be not less 
than 2^ inches. A useful gully trap is shown in Fig. 36. 
It is made with a short or long discharge pipe— for areas, 
where the drain is near the surface, short; for yards, 
where the drain is usually several feet below the surface, 
long. 

The entrance to every gully trap should be protected with 
a grating or perforated lid, opening outwards to allow the 
trap to be readily cleansed. 

Every trap should be set level, and securely jointed to the 
drain it is to guard. 



CHAPTER IX. 



Decoration and Furniture. 

Decoration of Room Walls— Panelling— Colouring in Oil and Dis- 
temper—Hanging with Fabrics— Paper-hangings-Design 
and Colour— Varnished Papers— Poisonous Papers— Flock 
Papers— Putrid Paste and Size— Floors— Parquetry, Floor- 
cloths, and Mattings— Carpets and Rugs— Ceilings— Cornices 
and " Centres "—Ceiling Papers— Furniture for Use rather 
than Ornament— Rooms not to contain too much— Pictures 
—Furniture required for Hall, Living-rooms, and Bedrooms 
— Curtains. 

In a well-decorated and well-furnished room no colour or 
object should force itself on the attention with undue 
emphasis. Especially should the decoration of walls, 
ceiling, and floor be modest and retiring, that they may 
take their place as a sort of background to the objects in 
the room. If walls, ceiling, and floor are loaded with 
colour, or the pattern on them is too large and staring, they 
will destroy the good efl'ect of beautiful furniture and well- 
chosen works of art. 

Walls of rooms, halls, staircases, and passages may be 
decorated in various ways. They may be panelled with 
oak, pitch pine, or other ornamental wood. They may be 
painted in oil-colour, or in distemper (the colour being 
mixed with size, glue, white of egg, &c.). They may be 
hung with some decorative fabric, or covered with a paper- 
hanging. 

Panelling is well suited for the hall and dining-room, but 
the woods used for the purpose are con-.monly too dark. 
As the mouldings afford Iodgm:nt for dust, panelling 



114 



requires exceptional care to keep it clean. The hard woods 
best adapted for panelling being costly, rooms are some- 
limes lined with deal or other sofi wood, which is stained 
and varnished or painted, bat such woodwork is far more 
liable to perish, and the result is not satisfactorj'. Colour- 
ing in oils or distemper cannot be recommended generally. 
The rooms of a new house may be coloured in distemper 
for a year or two till they are thoroughly dry, but a surface 
thus treated has somewhat of an unfinished look. The 
objection to oil colour is that it interferes with the porosity 
of the walls, and forms a surface on which, under certain 
conditions, the moisture condenses. Then a single flat tint 
is not pleasant for the eye to rest on, and seems to require 
to be well covered with pictures or otherwise. Hanging 
with ornamental fabrics is, perhaps, from an artistic point of 
view, the best embellishment for a wall. It does not inter- 
rupt ventilation^ as there is a passage for air through it and 
behind it ; it is as easy to dust as any other wall covering, 
and from time to time it can be taken down and cleaned 
thoroughly. These fabrics are not unhealthy. Indeed, it 
is difficult to account for their not being in more general 
use. Their day may come yet. 

In nineteen houses out of twenty the wall decoration of 
the rooms in the first instance is coloured paper-hanging; 
and most people are well satisfied that it is so. Before 
entering on the consideration of the selection of paper, it 
may be necessary to caution incoming tenants that, before 
occupying a house, they should see that all old papers are 
thoroughly removed and the walls washed down. However 
artistic and clean-looking the last tenant's paper may be, 
there is no security that it may not harbour disease germs ; 
it must be stripped off, and the walls beneath must be 
washed, along with the floor, woodwork, and ceiling. 



"5 



In choosing a wall paper one takes note of patterns and 
colours. In respect of patterns there is little to be said. 
The paper should be M-ell covered, yet the design should 
not be too intricate, and the objects, curves, and lines form- 
ing it should be of themselves beautiful. Nothing in the 
■designs should be too obtrusive, as rounds and lozenges that 
seem to want counting. The pattern also should bear some 
relation to the size of the room — even a moderately-large 
pattern requires a moderately-large room, and a bold hand- 
some design suitable to a large room will dwarf a small one. 
There are as good small patterns as large ones, and there is 
no reason why a design on a small scale should not have 
fulness of vigour. 

What is to be the guide as to colour ? Nature, obviously. 
Does she use pure primary colours 1 But sparingly. Mainly 
the colours she uses are modified and subdued by shadows 
and by the effect of the interposing atmosphere. Then the 
broad range of vision, when one looks on Nature, takes in 
■so many hues that they tone down each other. The colours 
■of a wall paper should therefore be subdued, and, like all 
Nature's colours, harmonious. For most rooms light-reflect- 
ing colours are required, not light-absorbing colours ; that is, 
Jiaving but little sun in this country, it is desirable to make 
the most of it. A good wall paper may have many tints ; 
that m which the warm tints predominate is best suited to 
the cool room; that in which the cool tints predominate is 
.best suited to the warm room. In town houses, surrounded 
as they are by dull grey, stone colour, and dirty white, a 
fauly bright wall paper is generally desirable. In colouring 
a dado or freize, the shades and tints occurring in the wall 
paper should be used and should be in nearly the same 
iljroportions. 

Varnished papers, sometimes advocated as being wash- 



I 2 



ii6 

able and on this account specially sanitary, are not to be 
commended. They interfere with the ventilation through 
the walls of a room as no other papers do, and moisture 
condenses on them. 

Poisonous Paper-hangings are not now anything like so- 
common as they were some years since, when the danger to 
health incurred by their use was pointed out and discussed 
in the daily pape:s. The pigment in paper hangings which 
appears to have been most injurious was emerald greeni 
(aceto arsenite of copper), and modern taste does not 
favour the use of colours as bright as this. There were also 
other bright pigments only slightly less injurious, such as the 
beautiful colour known as king's yellow (sulphide of arsenic)^ 
vermilion (sulphide of mercury), and a form of cobalt blue 
(arseniate of cobalt). But some of the tertiary colours and 
subdued shades most affected at present may be produced! 
by combining pigments, some of which are poisonous, as redi 
lead (oxide of lead), chrome yellow (chromate of lead), flake- 
white (a mixture of carbonate of lead and hydrate of lead,, 
verdigris (acetate of copper), and perhaps also verditer and 
green verditer (both being hydrate and carbonate of copper}.. 
Indeed, there are few tints, not excepting lilacs and greys^ 
that may not contain arsenical or other poisonous colours. 
However, most good manufacturers of wall-papers avoid 
the use of all such colouring matter, and guarantee- 
that their goods are innocuous. If there should be any 
doubt a £trip of paper can be easily tested. A paper good 
in design and colouring need not be dear. On the other 
hand, some of the papers proved to contain most injurious 
pigment have been very high-priced ones. 

Flock papers are not much in vogue now, but householders 
are sometimes tempted to buy them, as they look warm and 
seem to clothe the walls better than other papers. They 



117 



are objectionable for two reasons — the pattern stands out in 
relief, attracting dust, which is difficult to remove, and the 
flock becomes tainted, absorbing the watery vapour from 
the breath. Most flock papers being dark, absorb the light 
as well as the breath, making the room dark as well as 
stuffy. 

The i"aper-hanging of a room may be unwholesome from 
yet another cause — the workmen who put it up having used 
putrid paste. It is a familiar experience that the paste 
is often sour and commencing to go bad, occasionally it is 
in a state of active decomposition. If the adhesive material 
•employed is size or blood-albumen, its being bad causes an 
<ffluvium there is no mistaking. Any putrefactive odour in 
a newly-papered room should at once arouse suspicion. 
Cases are on record where violent sickness and prostration 
have arisen from this cause. There can be no excuse for 
using paste or size not sound, for the addition of a little 
boracic acid or other simple antiseptic will keep them in 
good condition. 

Floors. — The decoration of floors is a far simpler question 
than the decoration of walls. For dining-rooms especially, 
and also for most sitting-rooms, there is no floor decoration 
to surpass oak parquetry. It may be laid down on any floor 
at about the cost of a good carpet. A parquetry floor, or a 
plain oak floor, is the most cleanly and healthy, and is easily 
kept in good condition with turpentine and beeswax. There 
is no reason, however, why floors of pine, larch, or even deal 
should not be polished with the same materials. A smooth 
polished floor is non-absorbent, and turpentine is itself a 
good disinfectant. As such floors are slippery, it is well to 
cover the centre with some light material, even in summer. 
Tor a dining-room the old-fashioned linen crumb-cloth, in 
patterned buffs or greys, is suitable. For most other sitting- 



ii8 

rooms nothing looks better than Indian matting, with simple 
designs in self-colour and red or self-colour and blue. 

In the winter something warmer is required, but in no 
case should the floor-covering be a carpet fitted to every 
corner of the room and nailed down. The best winter 
carpels for comfort and decoration, and the most cleanly, 
are the Eastern rugs and central carpets. The finest quality 
of such goods are costly, but not dear, for they wear so well. 
A good quality can be obtained at very moderate prices- 
The patterns are always in good taste, and the pigments are- 
never raw or vulgar, and will harmonise well with artistically 
decorated walls and good furniture. 

Ceilings. — ^It has been already stated that a really healthy 
house is better without ceilings — that the wooden joists with 
the under surface of the floor above (polished or painted) 
form a cleanly and suitable roof to a room, and that this, if 
not beautiful, is less ugly than the conventional whitewashed 
ceiling. The objection to the ceiling is that it is like a 
whited sepulchre, covering a cavity full of uncleanness. 
However, as most houses are constructed with ceilings, and 
it must take many years before public opinion is enlightened 
enough to get rid of them, a few words on ceiling decoration 
may not be out of place. The decoration ordinarily con- 
sists of a cornice with floral design in deep relief, and a 
central piece — an arrangement of acanthus leaves or similar 
device, in deep relief. Both these afford abundant lodg- 
ment for dirt and dust. The central piece should be done 
away with, and the cornice should be moulding of the 
simplest pattern. The whitewashing, which is inartistic and 
trying to the eyes, should be toned with buff or light red, 
or should not be used at all, the ceiling being papered 
instead. Special papers are now designed for ceilings. 
The colour and design should be less pronounced than in 



119 



the wall paper, and harmonise with it. The cornice may be 
coloured in two or three light tints selected from the wall 
and ceiling papers. 

Furnilure. — It will not be practicable to enter much into 
detail with reference to furniture. Still, a few guiding 
principles may assist the householder in choosing wisely. 
Remember, first, that furniture is for use rather than 
decoration ; therefore it ' is essential that it should be 
strong and well made and serve that use effectually. The 
several parts must not be merely glued together, but mor- 
tised, or dovetailed, or screwed together. It must be of 
sound material, have no flaws or cracks, and be made and 
finished in a workmanlike manner. It should not be 
merely coated with French polish, but hand polished, so 
that it may be washed and rubbed up periodically. 
Recesses and spaces beneath the windows may be utilised 
for seat?, and corners for cupboards, thus reducing the 
amount of movable furniture required and economising 
space. The defect in most rooms, both as regards comfort 
and appearance, is that they are overcrowded with furniture, 
and to make matters worse, little, trivial, useless things are 
added year by year, till in the drawing-room every surface 
is covered with gewgaws, and in the dining-room is a 
medley of meaningless bric-a brae. This is not decoration 
in any true sense. Some, doubtless, think that because 
they no longer deccrate their rooms with wax flowers and 
fruit under glass shades, and stuffed birds and large sea- 
shell?, they show belter taste than their parents; as if 
anything could be uglier than large models of insects (made 
of gum and wool in staring colours) on the mantelpiece, 
and the cup and saucer, mounted on plush, fastened to the 
wall! Such childish trifles should be relegated to the 
nursery, and a few -pieces of artistic furniture of good 



I20 



design, and made for use, will have some chance ot being 
effective. Of course, they should be in proportion to the 
size of the room, and the best position for them should be 
carefully thought out. If it be found that the walls look 
bare in any of the rooms, and are amply lighted, there is 
the place for pictures. A room may be thoroughly well 
furnished and decorated without pictures, but there are no 
other objects which give such breadth and interest to a room. 
For a dining-room pictures in oils are well suited, in other 
rooms water-colour drawings or prints are more appropriate. 
Indeed, a room well furnished and decorated should be 
like a picture— it should be in proportion, the objects in it 
should be beautiful, they should form masses of light and 
shade, giving due value to the whole, the colours should 
harmonise, and the composition should be artistic. Such 
an apartment is pleasing to the eye, restful to the mind, 
grateful to the whole man or woman, as well as cleanly and 
healthy in no ordinary degree. Nor is it the money spent 
in furnishing and decorating that makes a room as de- 
scribed. It may happen that where most money has been 
expended, the least satisfactory results have been obtained. 
There is no reason why a room in a small villa or a working 
man's cottage should not be a picture. If the tenant has 
the taste and knowledge he can make it so at an outlay of 
a few pounds. 

The furniture required for a hall will generally be a 
"settle" or form, a small table, and an umbrella stand. If 
the hall be large, a couple of chairs may be required as 
well. A hat-stand is not needed, and having one leads to 
hats and coats being always left in the hall. 

The furniture for a dming-room is ordinarily a table, with 
leaves to lengthen it, a side-board, and a dozen chairs. 
A corner cupboard is a convenience, and, if there be space 



121 



-for them, two easy chairs add much to the comfort of the 
room. In very small dining-rooms a light buffet or dinner- 
wagon may take the place of the sideboard. 

The furniture in the drawing-room should include one 
:sofa, and not less than a dozen other seats (unless the space 
be too limited), a piano, a cabinet, a writing table, and one 
•or two small occasional tables. A folding screen is ordi- 
narily required now, and the room is often improved by a 
supermantel. 

The library needs little furniture besides the bookcases. 
A writing-table with drawers, four chairs, and two easy 
•chairs, will usually be furniture enough. How the boudoir, 
■or morning room, should be furnished will depend on how 
it is to be used. 

The furnishing of the bedrooms deserves a little special 
attention. Iron or brass bedsteads are preferable to wooden 
ones, being more cleanly, and occupying less space. The 
best mattresses are of woven wire or similar material, and 
•over them should be placed thin beds stuffed with curled 
hair. The bedclothes should be warm and light, and 
^should not extend over the side of the bed more than ten or 
twelve inches. No boxes or boots or other things should 
be put under the beds. There should be a free passage for 
air under every bed. A washing-stand, wardrobe, and 
chest of drawers are furniture enough for any bedroom, 
and the wardrobe should not have its height increased by a 
tall cornice having behind it a receptacle for dust most 
■difficult to clean. A dirty-clothes basket should not form 
part of the furniture of any bedroom. 

Curtains in all rooms should be of rather light material, 
■and should never trail on the ground. In bedrooms they 
■should be dark enough in colour to keep out the light, and 
•only slightly longer than the window. Curtain fabrics 



should be of a colour that will stand the sun and wash 
.well. They should be fastened to the rings in some simple 
way, to allow of their being taken down frequently for 
cleaning. 



CHAPTER X. 



Stables, Cowhouses, (Jtr. 

Stable Space required for each Horse— Lighting and Ventilation- 
Walls, Flooring, and Drainage— Fittings— Coach-house^ 
Harness, &c.— Washing-yard — Cowhouse — Space Required 
for each Cow — Arrangement in Large Cowhouses — Drainage 
—Lighting, Ventilation, &c.— Dairy and Scullery— Piggery 
— Space Required for Swine — Fowl-house— Pigeon Cote. 

Not far from the healthy home, in the rear, there will 
often be stables and perhaps other houses for the accom- 
modation of animals or fowls. A short chapter on the 
conditions required in respect of such outbuildings may 
therefore be useful. In all it is important that space 
enough should be provided, good ventilation and lightings 
and drainage, so that the inside of the building may be 
kept free from effluvium nuisance. 

Stable and Coach-bouse. — -The minimum superficial space 
which should be allowed for each horse has been set down, 
as I oo square feet ; and the minimum air space has been 
set down as 1200 cubic feet; but this seems rather excessive^ 
A stall is commonly made 9 feet long by 6 feet wide, and 
except it is intended for a very large horse, there is no- 
advantage in having it larger. Giving access to the stalls is 
the gangway, which is certainly large enough if 5 feet wide.. 
Thus, a stable having 84 square feet floor for each horse to- 
be accommodated is not unreasonably small, and if the 
mean height of the stable be 12^- feet there would be 1050- 
cubic feet of air space for each horse— a fair minimunt 
amount. 



124 

Stables should never be built of wood, but of brick or 
•stone. They should be lighted by cross windows, the lower 
part of the windows being 5I feet from the ground. A 
convenient size for a window is about 3 feet by 3 feet. This 
may be swung in the centre or divided into an upper and lower 
sash, each swung in the centre. Besides the windows, air 
bricks should be inserted in the walls just above the floor 
and just below the eaves of the roof, and there should be a 
ventilator at the top of the stable, extending from end to 
■end, made by raising the upper part of the roof on supports, 
and introducing louvre boards on either side. 
■ The handsomest lining for a stable is glazed tiles or 
glazed brick. However, the material should not be white, 
but buff or grey. Similarly, when the stable is built with 
•ordinary brick and lime-washed, a little colouring should be 
added to tone the dead white, which is trying to the horses' 
eyes. The best flooring for a stable is made of very hard 
brick or stone setts. The drainage should be by means of 
channels on the surface. The main channel should run 
along the back of the stalls, and a channel down the centre 
■of each stall deliver into it. The contents of the main 
channel should be conducted through a hole in the wall on 
an open gully outside. The stable floor should be made to 
fall to the channels, which may be of hard stone or iron. 
The doorway should not be less than 4 feet wide and 
7 1 feet high. 

The fittings should be of iron, painted or coated to 
prevent rusting. The troughs and mangers should be 
■enamelled inside. The boarding between the stalls should 
■not reach to the floor. An inch or so of space below 
improves the ventilation and facilitates the cleaning of the 
•stable. If one of the stall divisions be made to remove, a 
loose box can be readily extemporised. 



The coach-house should be of brick, glazed inside or 
plastered. Cement probably makes the best floor. It 
there be a loft above, the floor should be tongued and. 
grooved to keep the dust from coming through. The 
harness-room should be boarded round and provided with a. 
stove. Coach-house and harness-room should be ventilated, 
with air-bricks. By the coach-house should be a paved 
yard for washing, draining to a propeily trapped drain.. 
There should also be a water-supply pipe near at hand. A. 
stable midden should be provided, made of brick or stone, 
lined with cement and drained. The bottom should be on 
a level with the ground, and the whole area of the midden- 
stead should not be more than 4 feet by 4 feet. The 
situation chosen for it should be as remote as practicable 
from the door or windows of the stable, coach-house, &c. 
No room should be placed over a stable, and no .sleeping- 
room should adjoin a stable. 

Cowhouse and Daiiy. — The minimum superficial space- 
usually allowed for a cow in regulations made by local 
authorities under powers given them by the Dairies, Cow- 
sheds, and Milkshops Orders, has been about 54 square- 
feet, and the minimum air space has been about 600 cubic- 
feet. A stall should be made not less than 8 feet long by 
45 feet, and the passage along the cowhouse giving access, 
to each stall should be not less than 4 feet wide. This 
would allow 54 square feet for each cow, and if the mean, 
height of the cowhouse were 11 1 feet, there would be 621 
cubic feet of air space for each cow. This may seem 
rather a small minimum amount, and is so, yet it is double- 
the amount actually provided in many old-fashioned cow- 
sheds still in existence. Latterly, in many districts, the- 
minimum air space for each cow has been fixed at 800 cubic: 
feet. 



Cowhouses should never be built of wood, but of brick 
or stone, and should have a passage through and entrance 
■at each end, to facilitate ventilation. 

The double cowhouse with two parallel rows of stalls is 
:sometimes arranged so that the cows have their heads to 
the wall, and sometimes so that they have their heads 
towards the central passage. If the cows have their heads 
to the central passage, another gangway at each side against 
the wall is required, and the floor would drain right and 
left to a channel by each gangway. If the cows have their 
heads away from the centre, the floor would drain to the 
centre. The channel or channels should be open, and the 
contents conducted through a hole in the wall on an open 
gully outside. Not as much light is required as in the case 
•of horses. Long windows, 2 feet broad by i foot high, 
seem suitable. Wide doors at each end, which can often 
•be left open, will help to keep the cowhouse well aired, but 
there should also be a roof ventilator near the ridge 
extending from end to end, as in a well-ventilated stable. 

The flooring should be of very hard brick or other non- 
absorbent material. The walls should be whitewashed and 
the under part of the roof, and it is well to have the lower 
part of the walls, to a height of 4 or 5 leet, coated with tar. 
The fittings are generally of hard wood. Iron troughs 
enamelled inside are the best. If two of the stall partitions 
be made to remove, two stalls double the ordinary width 
may be arranged for cows during and after calving. 

If a dairy is required it must be well ventilated and 
sheltered from the sun. It should be built of brick, if 
possible, with glazed lining. The floor may be of flags, or 
tiles, or cement. Shelves of slab slate should be provided. 
Adjoining the dairy should be a scullery for cleansing the 
-dairy vessels, having a service from the main, and a hot- 



127 



Avater boiler. A stand-pipe should be provided for the 
■supply of the cows. A iniddenstead should be provided of 
brick or stone lined with cement and drained. The 
situation should be as remote from the dairy as prac- 
ticable. 

The manure should be removed at least once a month. 

Piggery. — This, like the cowhouse, should be substan- 
tially built of brick or hard stone, and the low enclosing 
wall should be of the same material. The sty may be 
conveniently ventilated by several holes, the size of half a 
brick, back and front, and placed high up. The floor and 
enclosure adjoining each sty should be paved with some 
hard impervious material, having a smooth surface, and 
draining to a channel delivering on a gully trap. The 
trough should be of stoneware or enamelled iron. The 
sties and enclosing walls should be lime-washed at regular 
periods. 

The air-space in pig-sties is often v;ry small, and 
relatively much smaller than the air space allowed for other 
animals. The entrance to the sty having no door, if the 
ventilating holes at the back are sufficient, the air in the sty 
is soon changed. Still no amount of ventilation will justify 
overcrowding. Generally, it may be said that a pig of a 
year old or upwards should be allowed not less than 30 cubic 
feet of air-space. 

Thus, a sty measuring feet by 4 feet, and 3^ feet 
high, would be suited for the accommodation of not more 
than two swine. 

Fowl-house. — Commonly some small wooden erection is 
made to serve for lodging poultry, or a house is built of 
rough boards for the purpose, and the fowls put therein are 
not kept in a cleanly or wholesome manner. The fowl- 
house should be built of brick or hard stone, ventilated by 



128 



a louvre-ventilator at the top of the roof and by air-bricks in 
the walls. The floor should be of cement or other 
impervious material, having a sliglit slope to a channel 
delivering on a gully trap outside, The walls inside should 
be lime-washed at regular intervals of time, and the floor 
should be washed and sanded one or twice a week. The 
poles placed across for perches should be of hard wood, and 
so arranged that the perched birds shall not foul one 
another. Fowls should be liberally supplied with clean 
water in a glazed or enamelled trough. A separate com- 
partment should be provided for sitting hens, properly 
supplied with comfortable nests. 

Pigeon-cote. — Something might be said about housing 
pigeons in a more cleanly, healthy way than is usual, but 
pigeons being kept at all is almost necessarily an insanitary 
practice, except when there is room enough round the house 
to give the pigeons accommodation a very long way off. 
Even when the pigeon-cote is at some distance from the 
dwelling-house, the pigeons foul the walks round the house, 
the yard in rear, the linen hung to dry or spread to bleach, 
and the roof, choking the gutters and rain-spouts. It is 
therefore not unreasonable to hold that he who would have 
a healthy, cleanly house should not keep pigeons. 



CHAPTER XI 



HOW TO KEEP IHE HOUSE CLEAN. 



Methodical Supervision— Where Dirt comes from— Cleaning Bed- 
rooms-Morning Airing— Dusting— Cleaning Sitting-rooms — 
Sweeping— Cleaning Hall, Passages. Staircase, &c.— Clean- 
ing Kitchen and Scullery— Cleaning Saucepans, Knives, and 
Forks, &c.—Blackbeetles— Cleaning Larders, Cellars, &c. — 
Spring Cleaning. 

A GOOD deal has been already said incidentally on the 
necessity of keeping every part of the house clean. How- 
ever well planned and constructed the healthy home may 
be, however well warmed, ventilated, fitted, and furnished, 
unless it be kept clean it cannot remain healthy. This 
business of cleaning is for the housewife to attend to ; and 
to be done well the housewife must have full knowledge of 
what is required, and must work and supervise methodically, 
regularly, and almost continuously. Keeping the house 
clean is a very different thing from having a periodical clean- 
ing of a dirty house. Whether the staff under her be large 
or small, the housewife must utilise to the full all the skill 
and labour at her command, like a practised genera], 
assigning each task to the person who can best perform it. 
She will then know who is responsible in case of neglect or 
failure. Since prevention is better than cure, much will be 
accomplished in preventing dirt being deposited by inculcat- 
ing cleanly habits. 

In answer to the preliminary question— whence comes the 

K 



I30 

dirt in a house ? — it may be said that it is mainly derived 
from three sources, viz. — 

(1) From living human beings, 

(2) From fires and artificial lighting, and 

(3) From outside the house. 

It follows that the occupied parts of a house get more 
dirty than the unoccupied parts ; that, other things being 
equal, a house gets dirtier in winter than summer, and dirtier 
in towns, where the outside air is impure, than in the country. 
It is scarcely necessary to point out that the dirt from living 
human beings is the most injurious, and that therefore the 
rooms which require to be kept most scrupulously clean are 
the bedrooms. I'he first consideration for the housewife 
is — 

How to Keep Bedrooms Clean. 

The occupant should turn the bed-clothes, one after the 
other, over a pair of chairs, and open one window at least 
(top and bottom) before leaving the room. A housemaid 
should be instructed to go to each bedroom as soon as 
vacated, and if the occupant has not done his duty in this 
respect to do it for him. The bedclothes will thus be aired 
and dried, especially the two sheets, which, couiing next 
the body, absorb much of the moisture given off by it. 
Once or twice a week, on a sunny morning, the bed should 
be turned over on chairs, and aired for two or three hours. 
It has been wisely said that people are fidgety enough about 
the danger of cka7i damp when the sheets come from the 
wash, weekly or fortnightly, but indifferent to the danger 
from dirty damp which menaces them every day. 

When, after breakfast, the maid begins to put the bed- 
rooms in order, the room and bedding will be aired. She 



brings with her a slop pail, which, if scalded after use, and 
kept dry and open, is not offensive ; a can of hot water with 
a Httle soda or potash or dry soap ; a small scrubbing brush, 
and three cloths — one for the carafes and tumblers, one for 
the basins, ewers, &c., and one for the chambers. It is well 
to have these cloths of different colours (say, pink, buff, and 
blue), so that there is no possibility of mistaking one for the 
■other. Carafes, tumblers, basins, ewers, sponge bowls, 
brush dishes, soap dishes, waste pails, baths and chambers, 
should be washed daily. For the chambers hot water and 
soda, potash, or dry soap should be used, and if cleansed 
carefully they will not become furred or offensive in any 
way. When all slops are removed, and all utensils cleansed, 
the housemaid washes her hands and changes her apron, and 
proceeds to make the beds. The thin bed or mattrass of 
curled hair, which is all that is needed if a woven wire 
mattrass be used, should be turned daily. It should be 
buttoned up in a cotton cover, which can be washed when 
necessary, and will keep the tick clean. Sheets and pillow 
cases should be changed once a week, or at least once a 
fortnight. Blankets, inasmuch as they are well covered, and 
not actually in contact with the body, will not need washing 
more frequently than once a quarter. The iron bed should 
be dusted daily with a damp cloth, and thoroughly washed 
with soap and water once a quarter. The room should not 
be dusted till after the bed is made. 

The requisites for dusting are a dry cloth, a damp cloth, 
and a dusting brush. The housemaid should go right 
round the room and over it, dusting every article she comes 
to. In dusting a mantelpiece or table, all articles on it must 
be removed to permit it to be dusted thoroughly, and then 
the articles must be dusted one by one and replaced. 
Having one cloth dam.p is to ensure that the dust is really 

K 2 



132 



taken up and not sent flying to some other part of the room- 
The dry duster, which is used after the other, or for things, 
a damp duster should not touch, should be well shaken out 
of the window from time to time. The pohshed or painted 
floor should be dusted with a damp cloth all over ; and the. 
one or two light rugs on the floor should be shaken daily — 
of course outside the house. Once a week the walls should 
be carefully rubbed down, and the room swept. The last 
duty of the servant with reference to the bedrooms is to fill 
the ewers and carafes, and close the doors. It is absolutely 
essential that the carafes be filled from the main tap, and it is. 
desirable that the ewers also be filled from this tap. 

It is well to give the blanket an airing once a week in the 
open air. The curtains also, which should not be sewn but 
hooked to the rings, should be taken down, brushed, and 
shaken once a week. If bed curtains and vallances are 
provided they should be treated in the same way ; but 
neither bed curtains nor vallances are needed or useful. 

As ordinarily the bedroom fireplace is not in use it will 
not need to be black-leaded oftener than once a month. Of 
course, it and the fire-irons and fender should be dusted 
daily, and the flue should be left open. 

How to keep Sitting-rooms clean. — Sitting-rooms should be 
aired the first thing in the morning. As soon as the 
shutters are opened the windows should be opened, above 
or below, except when, owing to a thick fog or heavy rain,, 
this would not be expedient. It is a good practice to begin 
the cleaning at the fireplace. The housemaid should 
spread her canvas cloth in front of the hearth, and after 
moving the fender and fire-irons on this, the hearth should 
be swept, and cinders and ashes raked out and put in a pan. 
to be sifted. The hearth should then be wiped over with a 
damp cloth, and the fireplace black-leaded. The lead 



133 

should hs well welted, and very little put on. The polishing 
should be done with a separate brush. The fender and 
iire-irons require rubbing up and some parts require black- 
leading. When the fireplace is not in use it will only 
require an occasional blackleading. However, it is well to 
Tub it up with a polishing brush two or three times a week. 

Sitting-rooms often have central carpets and rugs which 
are too heavy to be shaken frequently. About once a 
month will be often enough. These will require to be care- 
fully swept daily with a carpet brush. Tea leaves rinsed in 
•clean water and gently squeezed may be scattered over the 
carpet. The housemaid should sweep in one direction (as 
regards some carpets there is only one direction in which 
they can be swept properly), taking up the dust in a dust- 
pan, and burning it at the back of the kitchen fire. Wet 
tea-leaves should not be thrown into the ash-pit. The 
polished or painted part of the floor should be carefully 
dusted with a damp cloth. At the same time the whole 
room and contents should be carefully dusted. One of the 
most troublesome things to dust is a Venetian blind. 
Inasmuch as it is almost impossible to keep these blinds 
clean, and they are heavy and costly and soon get out of 
order, it is better to provide simple blinds made of linen or 
glazed cotton, which may be had printed in neat artistic 
patterns. Curtains should be unhooked from their rings 
weekly, and dusted and shaken. 

Gasaliers, pendants, and brackets should be dusted daily, 
and if in use will require washing with soap and water 
■once a month. Globes should be wiped daily with a damp 
cloth, and washed with soap and water fortnightly. To 
keep lamps clean and in order requires a great deal of 
attention, and as long as they are in use this will take 
considerable time daily. Mineral oil is so penetrating that 



134 



it comes through glass and through some metals. In cleaning 
colza oil lamps a little paraffin is very useful. 

In rubbing up the furniture, let the housemaid be sparing 
in the use of " cream " or any other preparation. It is the 
rubbing rather than the stuff rubbed on that makes the 
furniture look well. Furniture should be washed with soap 
and water once a quarter. Mirrors should be washed once 
a fortnight. A little spirits of wine will remove the 
fly-marks. 

Windows should be cleaned with wash-lealher at least 
once a fortnight. This should not be done on a windy or 
rainy day, or in very bright weather. Of course, the 
woodwork of the windows should be cleaned as well as the 
glass. 

How to keep Hall, Passages, and Stairs clean. — The 

hall is generally tiled or covered with linoleum or oilcloth, 
and this is very easily kept clean by rubbing it over with a 
wet cloth, and afterwards with a dry one, the first thing 
every morning. Door-mats should be shaken outside the 
house daily, and strips of cocoa-matling or other passage- 
covering should be so treated weekly. The hall and passage 
should be well dusted daily, and the walls rubbed down 
once a week. The knocker, bell-handle, door-handle, &c., 
if of brass, should be polished at least every other day — 
pieces of flat metal cut out to fit round the mounting being 
used to keep the polishing paste from soiling the door. All 
the doors and panelhng should be dusted daily, and 
regularly washed once a month. 

The staircase should be swept from the top downwards 
before the hall is dusted. The housemaid should sweep 
into a dust-pan, using a short-handled staircase brush with 
tufts at the end for reaching out-of-the-way places. The 
st?ir-rail and banisters should be dusted daily. Stair carpets 



should be shaken and beaten outside once a month, and 
the rods cleaned and the stairs washed. 

Water-closets, though designed to be self-cleansing and 
work smoothly, will yet require some attention daily. It 
must be someone's duty to see every morning that all the 
apparatus, especially the basin, is scrupulously clean ; that 
the flushing cistern is in good working order, and that the 
closet is well aired. No trust should be put in deodorants 
or disinfectants— a properly kept closet requires nothing of 
the kind. 

Baths should be washed every time they are used. 

All brushes and dusters must be regularly washed 
Brushes should be put away with the hair upwards. 

How to keep the Kitchen and Scullery clean. — The first 
duty every morning is to remove and sift the cinders and 
ashes, and clean the range. The flue should also be 
cleaned with a brush as far as possible. The oven should 
be brushed out, and the oven floor and shelves scraped and 
washed when soiled with food. The hearth should be 
washed and whitened, and the fender and fire-irons should 
be rubbed bright^ emery paper being used when necessary. 

The range boiler should be cleaned out weekly, and the 
boiler in the fire-back (which requires a workman to clean 
it) should be cleaned once a year. Unless this is done, its 
capacity for heating will be very much diminished by fur 
The kitchen and scullery floors should be swept daily, and 
washed twice a week. Any rug or matting thereon should 
be shaken daily, and once a fortnight scrubbed with soap 
and water, and rinsed and hung to dry in the open air. It 
is better to do without matting in the kitchen. The kitchen 
table and scullery table should be washed daily; the dresser 
shelves and cupboards once a week. Sand is of great 
assistance in washing the kitchen and ofiices, and where 



136 

tliere are gn ase stains a little fuller's earth may be used 
The sinks should be scrubbed daily with soap and hot 
water, and the brasswork regularly cleaned every second 
<3ay. As soon as the morning cleaning is over, the kitchen 
should be well aired. 

The walls should be rubbed down every fortnight, and 
the surface of walls and ceiling should be re-coated every 
year. 

With regard to kitchen utensils, knives, forks, &c., the 
main rule is to clean them as soon as possible after they 
are^ soiled. If attention is paid to this, things will clean 
easier and wear longer. Saucepans or jugs or tins that 
cannot be cleaned at once should be filled to the brim with 
water and remain full till attention can be given them. 
Plenty of hot water should be used in washing them, with 
the addition of a little soda when grease has to be removed. 
Knives and steel forks should be wiped and put in a jug of 
hot water and soda (the handles not being immersed) for a 
few minutes, and then taken out and cleaned with bath 
brick or other material till bright. The handles should be 
cleaned with a wet cloth and dried at once. Silver ard 
plated goods should be washed clean after using, and 
regularly cleaned with whiting or plate powder once a 
week. 

Plates, dishes, &c., should be washed first with hot water 
and soda, and then well rinsed in clean water. Glass 
should be washed with warm water, carefully dried, and 
polished with a leather. All dish-cloths, &c., should be 
washed after use and hung in the open air. 

No blackbeetles should appear in a kitchen supervised by 
a cleanly housewife. Every little hole in the wall and floor 
should be filled up, so that blackbeetles shall have no way 
in and out of the kitchen. When any are found, a little 



137 



powdered hellebore scattered in the corners and in cup- 
boards will soon get rid of them. 

Larders, and any cellars or rooms in which food is kept, 
should be visited daily, so that portions of unsound food 
may be noticed and destroyed. The floor and shelves of 
the larder should be washed weekly, and the walls and 
ceiling should be lime-washed at least once a year. 
•Cellars also should be visited once a week and cleaned 
out when necessary. They should be hme-washed once a 
year. 

Cisterns should be thoroughly cleaned out once a 
■quarter. 

The traps round the house on which the rain-spouts and 
waste-pipes discharge should be carefully cleaned out and 
refilled with fresh water at least once a week. Grease traps 
require to be cleansed daily. Once a year the valleys of the 
Toof and the gutters and rain-spouts should be examined, 
for sooner or later they are sure to get choked. 

Spring Cleaning, when a house is kept clean all the year 
round, is divested of much of its importance ; still it should 
not be neglected. However exact the rules laid down for 
daily cleaning, however industrious the servants and intelli- 
.gent the supervision, it is well that a house should be 
overhauled from cellar to attic at least once a year. 
Facilities for emptying any room and cleaning and airing 
are given, and extra service is hired, and the most should 
be made of the opportunity. It is impossible to lay down 
any rule as to how often chimneys should be swept, so 
much depends on the number of the fires and the nature of 
the coal used. Still one rule is safe to insist on— that at 
the spring cleaning (just when fires are for the most part to 
'be discontinued) every chimney in the house shall be 
anade clean. Then if the rooms have ceilings, they should 



138 

be repapered or whitewashed at the spring cleaning. Wall- 
papers at this time should be thoroughly cleaned all over 
with the crumb of bread. Floors, wainscots, panelling, 
doors, and all woodwork should be well washed. Cup- 
boards, drawers, boxes, &c., should be emptied and washed. 
Bedsteads, if of wood, should be taken to pieces. Stuffed 
seats should be well beaten and freed from dust. Carpets, 
after being beaten and shaken, should be drawn over clean 
grass with the face downwards. Cellars and attics should 
be thoroughly cleaned out, and all accumulations of lumber 
got rid of. It is quite possible to get the spring cleaning 
done with the family at home, not more than two or three 
rooms being cleaned at a time. However, the work is 
perhaps better done when the family is away for a short 
holiday. 



CHAPTER XII. 



OBLIGATIONS OF HOUSEHOLDER AND SANITARY AUTHORITY. 

Rates and Taxes— Gross Value and Rateable Value— Poor Rates.. 
Bore' Rates, &c.— Gas and Water Rates— Land Tax and 
Property Tax— Landlord and Tenant— Taking a House — 
Warranty— Examination by Sanitary Expert— Conditions of 
Tenancy— Leases— Yearly Tenancies— Fixtures— Some Pro- 
visions of the Public Health Act- Right of Drainage into 
Public Sewers — House Drains. Drains, &c,, to be properly 
kept— Examination of Drains, &c.— Removal of Refuse— 
Quitie's House - refuse Receptacle — Filthy Houses to be 
Purified, &c. — Abatement of Nuisances. 

The legal position of a person taking a house, the usual 
conditions of tenancy, &c., and some of the more important, 
duties of the local sanitary authority with reference to him,, 
are subjects in which every householder is bound to be 
interested. It may be well, therefore, that they should be 
touched on briefly in this final chapter. A few words on 
house rates and taxes, and the principle on which they are 
assessed, may also furnish useful information, and appro- 
priately introduce the other subjects. 

Rales and Taxes. — Imperial taxes represent moneys- 
exacted from the individual for the service of the State j; 
rates represent moneys exacted for the purposes of the 
locality in which the individual lives or occupies premises.. 
However, many State charges are paid for out of the local 
rates, and many local necessities are paid for out of the- 
Imperial taxes. 

Gross Value and Rateable Value.— The gross value, on 
which Imperial taxes are assessed, is the rent without rates. 



140 



.and taxer, even though they are paid by the landlord. The 
rateable value, on which local rates are assessed, is the gross 
value, less repairs, and insurance. If, however, the rent 
paid, as may often happen, under a lease for a long term is 
less than the fair rental value of the premises at the present, 
■the authorities, in making their assessment, will be guided 
by the actual value of the property rather than the rent paid 
Poor Rates, Borough Rales, &c.-The money raised by 
the poor rates not only provides for the relief of the sick 
•and aged poor and the maintenance and education of 
•destitute children, but for the registration of births and deaths, 
'&c., and the enforcement of compulsory vaccination. By 
means of poor rates, borough rates, county rates, police 
■rates, &c., the principal advantages of civilised life are 
obtained: that is to say, lighting and watching, water supply, 
paving, sewering, cleansing, and repair of roads and streets, 
•the execution of sanitary regulations, the supervision of the 
•food supply, the provision and maintenance of public baths 
and wash-houses, hospitals for infectious diseases, disin- 
fecting houses, mortuaries, public cemeteries, &c. 

Lighting and Water Rates are not really rates, but charges 
Tnade for goods supplied. Gas rate is merely the price per 
1 000ft. the gas is charged in the district. In some districts 
the water also is charged for in quantity, as measured by 
•meter, but usually the charge is assessed upon the annual 
^value of the house supplied. From a sanitary point of 
view this is a more satisfactory way of charging for water 
than by meter. Services for a garden, a carriage hose, &c., 
are commonly charged extra. 

Land Tax and Property Tax. — Though the tenant is bound 
to pay both these taxes in the first instance, he is entitled 
to deduct them from the rent. However, if a tenant binds 
■hi:nself to pay all taxes generally, or to pay his rent free 



141 

and clear from all manner of taxes, he will not be able to 
deduct money paid for land tax from his rent. 

Landlord and Tenant.— The landlord is the person receiving 
the house rent, the tenant the person who pays. Thus the 
landlord may be, and often is, tenant of the real owner of 
the house, or there may be several persons who are thus both 
landlords and tenants between the actual owner and the 
actual tenant. 

Taking a House. — If a tenant takes a house with sanitary 
defects he does it at his own risk, and when the defects- 
cause injury to him or his family it by no means folIows^ 
that the landlord is liable in respect of the injury, or that 
the tenant can cease to occupy without giving the usual 
notice. Decisions have been given that the landlord, in 
letting a dwelling-house, is presumed to let it in a habitable- 
condition, and other decisions have been given that the 
landlord incurs no responsibility for the sanitary condition 
of his house. The tenant of a furnished house is in a some- 
what better position, as it is held that anyone letting a 
furnished house does so under the implied condition that 
the house is fit to be inhabited. 

Warranty. — If the landlord gives a warranty that the 
house is fit for habitation, he is responsible. It follows that 
the tenant should always require such warranty, and lest 
there should be any doubt with reference to the terms of 
the warranty, it is better to have it in writing. Still, as the 
most a warranty can do is to enable a tenant to recover 
damages for injury, and a tenant's main object will be to- 
prevent the injury, he should, if possible, obtain a ceriificate 
from the local authority that the sanitary condition of the 
premises is satisfactory. Only a few local authorities grant 
such certificates, and if there is no means of getting the 
landlord's warranty supported by the official cerlif.cate, the 



142 



•tenant should get the house examined by a competent 
independent expert. 

Examination by Sanitary Expert.— Of course the expert 
employed can only obtain access to the premises by consent 
of the landlord. Whether the report be favourable or other- 
wise, the tenant must pay the cost of the examination. If 
the expert specify that before the house is in a sanitary con- 
dition certain work will require to be done, a statement of 
the requirements should be furnished to the landlord, and the 
tenant will do well to refuse to sign any agreement or enter 
inlo possession till the expert he has consulted certifies to 
him that the work required has been done. If it were 
required that all dwelling-houses without distinction should 
be reasonably fit for human habitation, tenants would be in 
■a much more satisfactory position than they are. 

Conditions of Tenancy— The bases of agreements between 
landlord and tenant are that the landlord gives possession 
in consideration of rent, and that the tenant pays rent. 
Who is to keep the premises in repair and pay insurance, 
and who is to pay rates and taxes, is according to agreement. 
Usually, when the property is let by the week or month the 
tenant makes himself liable for nothing but the rent. In an 
• annual tenancy, or a tenancy for a period not exceeding 
three years, the tenant usually pays the rates and taxes, and 
the landlord keeps the premises in repair and pays insurance. 
In leases for longer periods than three years it is common 
for the tenant to agree to keep the premises in repair and 
pay insurance, rates, and taxes. However, this is not a 
■covenant a tenant should enter into, as he thus binds him- 
self to have the premises in repair at all times during the 
term, and if they are out of repair any single day he may be 
made liable for breach of covenant, and perhaps also have to 
pay a claim for dilapidations. Indeed, a tenant being under 



143 

a covenant to repair and keep in repair the house he 
occupies, if it should be burnt down would have to re-build 
it at his own cost, and continue to pay the rent as if no fire 
had occurred. When the tenant is willing to agree to keep 
the premises in repair his covenant should contain such 
words as " reasonable wear and tear and damage by fire 
excepted," and the landlord should agree to rebuild the 
premises if burnt down, and not charge rent during the re- 
building. 

Leases are commonly granted for seven, fourteen, or 
twenty-one years, and may be determined at the end of 
either of the first two periods at the option of the person 
accepting the lease. To prevent disputes at the end of the 
term for which the house is taken, the lease should contain 
a schedule of fixtures to be surrendered with the house. 
An agreement for a year, or for two or three years, the 
tenant having the option of taking a lease at the same rate, 
is a good way of renting a house, as the tenant can thus 
test the wholesomeness and suitableness of premises before 
taking them for a long period. When a landlord leases his 
property his whole interest is demised, subject to some con- 
ditions. However, a lease must be in writing, in the form 
of a deed, sealed and delivered. The leaseholder then 
becomes liable for the repairs and maintenance of the 
premises, even if the house be uninhabitable. If a lease be 
lost the tenant's term therein will not be prejudiced, if he 
proves the term was not expired. When there are several 
under-leases between the freeholder and the proposed 
tenant, the latter before signing the lease should ascertain 
the extent of his liability under the intermediate leases, and 
take care he does not make himself responsible for 
covenants he is ignorant of. 

Yearly Tenancies. — A common way of taking a house is 



144 



by yearly tenancy without written agreement. The tenant 
can leave at the end of the first year, or by notice to quit at 
the end of each succeeding year, but notice must be given 
before the beginning of the six months ending the year 
However, a tenancy for a year, and so on from year to year 
differs from a yearly tenancy, as the tenant has no power to 
give SIX months' notice to quit during the first year A so- 
called "tenancy at will" is really to all intents and purposes 
an annual tenancy, as the payment of any portion of a 
yearly rent makes it a yearly tenancy. When a house is 
thus held without written agreement, or even under an 
agreement in the absence of express covenants, there is no 
obligation on the landlord to keep the premises in repair. 
He may in his own interest see that the roof and outer walls 
are watertight, but he is not bound to do even this. 

In taking a house for any term of years, the tenint should 
see that the house is habitable and in good repair, and that 
the adjoining roads and sewers therein are made and 
adopted. In taking a house for from one year to three 
years the tenant should have a regular agreement drawn up, 
binding the landlord to keep the roof and walls in good 
substantial repair. If the house is in good repair when the 
tenant enters on possession, it is not unreasonable for the 
landlord to require the tenant to keep up the interior, 
including the doors, windows, and all fixtures upon the 
premises, so that at the end of the tenancy the premises 
will be given up in as good a state as when the tenant 
entered on possession, fair wear and tear excepted. The 
tenant can force the landlord to do what he undertakes to 
do, but failure of the landlord to execute a covenant does 
not release the tenant from his liability for rent or any part 
thereof. Before taking possession the tenant should inquire 
at what sum the house is assessed, and see if the rates and 



145 



taxes are paid to the date of the beginning of his tenancy, 
for some taxes may be enforced from the tenant in posses- 
sion, though due prior to his becoming tenant. In no case 
should a tenant agree to pay all outgoings, as this might 
make him liab'e for some quite exceptional expense that 
ought to be borne by the landlord. 

Fixtures erected by a tenant by way of ornament or con- 
venience may be taken away before the term expires, pro- 
vided they are not permanent improvements and can be 
removed without material damage to the property. Thus, 
ornamental chimney-pieces, grates, ranges, stoves, fixed 
tables, window blinds, bookcases or brackets screwed to the 
wall, cupboards and pumps, have been held removable, but 
only if removal occasions no substantial injury to the walls. 

Some Provisions of the Public Health Act.— The duties 
and obligations of the local sanitary authority are best 
illustrated by some of the provisions of the Public Health 
Act, 1875. The more important of those relating to the 
householder appear to be the following :— 

Right of Drainage into Public Sewers.— Under Section 21, 
owners and occupiers of premises within a district have the 
right to drain into the public sewers. The right is not 
limited to sewers within any particular distance, but no 
express power is given to owners or occupiers to carry con- 
necting drains through the private land of other persons. 

House Drains.— Under Section 25 it is not lawful, in any 
urban district, to build or rebuild any house, or to occupy 
any house so built or rebuilt, unless and until a proper 
covered drain or drains be constructed. By Section 23 of 
the same, when any house within the district, urban or 
rural, of a local authority is without a drain sufficient for 
effectual drainage, the local authority have to require the 
owner or occupier, within a reasonable time, to make an 

L 



1+5 



efficient covered drain or drains, and if the work is not 
done within the time required, the authority may do it, and 
recover the expenses incurred from the owner. 

Drains, &c., to be properly kept.— Under Section 40 the 
local authority is required to provide that all drains, water- 
closets, earth-closets, privies, ashpits, and cesspools within 
its district be constructed and kept so as not to be a 
nuisance and injurious to health. 

Examination of Drains, &c. — A local authority, under 
Section 41, receiving a written application from any person 
stating that any drain, water-closet, earth-closet, privy, ash- 
pit, or cesspool, in or belonging to any premises with'n their 
district, is a nuisance or injurious to health, may empower 
their surveyor or inspector of nuisances, after twenty-four 
hours' notice to the occupier, or in case of emergency 
without notice, to enter the premises, with or without 
assistance, to cause the ground to be opened, and examine 
the drains, &c. If the drains, Szc, be found in proper 
condition, the ground must be closed, any damage done 
made good, and the cost defrayed by the local authority. 
If the drains, &c., on examination appear to be in bad 
condition, or to require alteration or amendment, the local 
authority are required forthwith to cause a notice in writing 
to be given to the owner or occupier^ requiring him within 
reasonable time specified to do the necessary work : and if 
such notice is not complied with, the person to whom it is 
given is liable to a penalty not exceeding ten shillings for 
every day he continues to make default, and the authority 
may execute such work and recover from the owner the 
expenses incurred. The power to determine the nature 
and extent of the works required is vested in the local 
authority. The occupier is prima facie liable for the repair 
of drains and sewers of the premises in his occupation, but 



1^7 

in some cases the owner is liable, as, for instance, if he let 
a house requiring particular care to prevent the occupation 
from being a nuisance, and the nuisance occur from want of 
that care on the part of the tenant. 

Removal of Refuse. — Under Section 42 the local authority 
may, and when required by the Local Government Board 
shall, undertake or contract for the removal of house refuse 
from premises, the cleansing of earth-closets, privies, ashpits, 
and cesspools for the whole or any part of their district, and 
undertake or contract for the proper cleansing of streets or 
for the proper watering of streets. Under Section 43, if a 
local authority who have undertaken, or contracted for, the 
removal of house refuse, &lc., fail to do the work, without 
reasonable excuse, within seven days after notice in writing 
from the occupier of any house, the authority is liable to 
pay to the occupier a penalty not exceeding five shillings a 
<3ay while the default continues. If the local authority do 
not undertake this duty, they may, under Section 44, make 
by-laws imposing the duty on the occupier of the premises. 

The removal of house refuse is a very important matter, 
and its being neglected or ill-done is a frequent cause of 
nuisance. In rural districts, what is in the midden and 
cesspool is commonly disposed of on a garden or field 
belonging to the house, or removed by a neighbouring 
farmer ; but where water-closets are provided, house refuse 
■has practically no value as manure, and its removal and 
•destruction should be undertaken by the local authority. 
It is usual for the authority to arrange for this work being 
•done by contract under the supervision of their Surveyor or 
Inspector ; but it is probably better carried out when done 
by the authority's men, with the authority's appliances, 
without the intervention of a contractor. As to frequency, 
at will be generally admitted that house refuse should be 

L 2 



148 



removed at short intervals, but in practice receptacles are 
seldom emptied till they are full or nearly full. It is thus 
preferable to have receptacles for house refuse no larger 
than necessary. The brick ashpit, measuring inside 3 feet 
by 3 feet and 3 feet deep, and therefore holding 27 cubic 
feet, is an abomination ; and yet many brick ashpits are 




Fig. 37, 

much larger than this. The system adopted in many towns, 
where each house is provided with a covered dust-box or 
dust-pail, to be emptied by dustmen early every morning, is 
a great improvement on the ashpit system. When the local 
authority cannot be induced to undertake a daily collection 
of refuse, covered dust-boxes or c ust-pnils large enough to 



1 J9 

hold the house refuse of three days or a week should be 
provided. The house-refuse receptacle invented by 
Dr. Quine appears to be well adapted for the purpose. This 
apparatus consists of a box fitting in a hole in the back wall 
of the premises, as shown in Fig. 37. The box is hung on 
pivots, so that the dustman can empty the contents into his 
truck in the back passage with great expedition. In the 
illustration A represents the box, B a roof with sides to 
keep off the rain, C the dustman's truck, and D the back 
passage. 

Filthy Houses to be purified. — When (Section 46) on the 
•certificate of a medical officer of health or two medical 
practitioners, it appears to a local authority that a house or 
part of a house is in such a filthy or unwholesome condition 
that the health of any person is affected or endangered 
thereby, or that the white-washing, cleansing, or purifying 
<if any house or part thereof would tend to prevent or check 
infectious disease, the local authority are required to give 
notice to the owner or occupier of such house or pa^t 
thereof to whitewash, cleanse, or purify the same as the 
case may require. Failure to comply with the terms of the 
notice renders the person to whom the notice is given liable 
to a penalty of ten shillings for every day he continues to 
make default. 

Section 120 makes it the duty of a local authority to 
•cause any house or part of a house, and any articles therein 
likely to letain infection, to be cleansed and disinfected, 
where they are of opinion, on the certificate of their medical 
•officer of health or any legally-qualified medical practitioner, 
that doing so would tend to prevent or check infectious 
disease. Notice is to be given to the owner or occupier to 
do the work within a time specified. The person to whom 
notice is given is liable to a penally of not less than a 



15° 

shilling, and not more than ten shillings, for every day he 
continues to make default. 

Abatement of Nuisances.— A nuisance has been defined as 
anything that renders the enjoyment of life or property 
uncomfortable, but generally the word is applied to some- 
thing that causes a continued annoyance. Section 47 
inflicts a penalty on any person in an urban district who is 
guilty of creating nuisances by swine-keeping, allowing 
stagnant water in cellars, &c. However, nuisances are 
commonly discovered and their abatement obtained under 
the 92nd and following sections. 

In Section 91 nuisances are thus defined : — 

(1) Any premises in such a state as to be a nuisance or 
injurious to health. 

(2) Any pool, ditch, gutter, watercourse, privy, urinal, 
cesspool, drain, or ashpit so foul or in such a state as to be 
a nuisance or injurious to health. 

(3) Any animal so kept as to be a nuisance or injurious 
to health. 

(4) Any accumulation or deposit which is a nuisance or 
injurious to health. 

(5) Any house or part of a house so overcrowded as to 
be dangerous or injurious to the health of the inmates, 
whether or not members of the same family, 

(6) Any factory, workshop, or workplace not kept in a 
cleanly state or not ventilated in such a manner as to 
render harmless, as far as practicable, any gases, vapours, 
dust, or other impurities generated in the course of the work 
carried on therein, that are a nuisance or injurious to- 
health, or so overcrowded while work is carried on as to be 
dangerous or injurious to the health of those employed 
therein. 

(7) Any fireplace or furnace which does not, as far as. 



151 

practicable, consume the smoke arising from the com 
bustible used therein, and which is used for working engines 
by steam, or in any mill, factory, dye-house, brewery, bake- 
house, or gaswork, or in any manufacturing or trade process 
whatsoever ; and any chimney (not being the chimney of a 
private dwelling-house) sending forth black smoke in such 
quantity as to be a nuisance. 

All these are nuisances affecting the public generally, and 
under Section 92 it is the duty of the local authority to 
cause inspection of their district for detection of such 
nuisances. If the local authority make default in enforcing 
the provisions of this Section, the Local Government Board 
may compel them to enforce the provisions, or appoint a 
person to enforce them at the expense of the authority. 

Under Section 93 information of nuisances may be give-n 
the local authority by any person aggrieved thereby, or by 
any two hundred inhabitant householders of the district, or 
any officer of the authority, or by the relieving officer or 
any officer of the local police. 

Under Section 94 the local authority have to serve notice 
requiring abatement of any nuisance reported to them, if 
satisfied of its existence. The notice has to be served on 
the person by whose act, default, or sufferance the nuisance 
arises or continues, or if such person cannot be found, on 
the owner or occupier of the premises on which the nuisance 
arises, requiring him to abate the same within a time to be 
specified in the notice, and to do whatever may be necessary 
for that purpose. However, when the nuisance arises from 
the want or defective construction of any structural con- 
venience, or where there is no occupier of the premises, 
notice under this section must be served on the owner. 
When the nuisance does not arise or continue by the act, 
default, cr sufferance of the owner or occupier, and the 



'52 

person causing iLe nuisance cannot be found, ihe local 
authority may themselves abate the same. 

Under Section 95, if a person on whom a notice to abate 
a nuisance has been served fails to comply with any of its 
requisitions within the time specified, or if the nuisance, 
though abated since the serving of the notice, is, in the 
opinion of the local authority, likely to recur on the same 
premises, the local authority are required to cause a com- 
plaint relating to such nuisance to be made before a justice, 
and the justice has to summon the person to appear. 

Section 96 empowers the Court of Summary Jurisdiction 
before which the person is summoned to appear, if satisfied 
that the alleged nuisance exists or is likely to recur on the 
same premises, to make an order requiring such person to 
comply with all or any of the requisitions of the notice, or 
otherwise to abate the nuisance within a time specified, or 
prevent its recurrence. The Court may also impose a 
penalty not exceeding five pounds on the person on whom 
the order is made, and give directions as to the payment 
of costs incurred. 

Under Section 98, if this order of the Court be not 
obeyed, a penalty not exceeding ten shillings a day will be 
incurred, and the local authority may themselves execute the 
work necessary to abate the nuisance. A person knowingly 
and willingly acting contrary to an order of the Court is 
liable to a penalty not exceeding twenty shillings per day 
during such contrary action. 

As regards the costs of abating a nuisance, it may 
generally be said that for this the person causing the 
nuisance is liable. For instance, if the landlord's defective 
sanitary appliances have caused the nuisance, he should 
pay for abating it; but if the tenant's want of cleanliness or 
negligent use of good appliances have caused the nuisance. 



153 

"he should pay for abating it. If the nuisance is due to both 
landlord and tenant, then they should share the expense of 
abatement. 

When a person appeals against an order to the Court of 
•Quarter Sessions, there is no liability to penalty,, nor can 
proceedings be taken on work done under such order till the 
termination of the appeal, unless it ceases to be prosecuted. 

The tenant may be called upon to pay to the local 
.authority expenses for work done on behalf of the landlord, 
being allowed to deduct from his rent what he so pays. 
But the tenant cannot thus be called on to pay more than 
the rent then due. If after notice from the authority to the 
tenant to pay them the rent, the landlord before such pay- 
ment puts in a distress for the rent, the rent must be paid 
to the landlord and not the authority. 

If local authorities are negligent of their duty in 
putting down a nuisance, any person suffering therefrom 
may call the authorities' attention to the nuisance and 
request them to set the law in motion. If this is not 
•effectual, complaint should be made in the form of a 
memorial to the Local Government Board, Whitehall, 
London, that the local authorities have made default in 
their duty in respect of a certain nuisance. The memorial 
may be accompanied by a report or statement by an expert, 
•as evidence that the nuisance really exists, but this is not 
necessary. The Loral Government Board have powers to 
require the local authorities to abate the nuisance, or they 
•can employ persons to abate it and recover the costs from 
the authorities. Or a person affected by a nuisance may 
■complain to a justice and obtain a summons against the 
■owner or occupier of the premises in which the nuisance 
•exists, and the Court, if satisfied there is a nuisance, will 
•order the same to be abated. All costs can be recovered. 



154 



When a nuisance on premises, proved to exist, is such as- 
to render the house unfit for human habitation, the authority 
may serve a notice on the owner requiring him to put the 
house m a habitable state within a certain time. If he 
neglects to do so they may summon him before a justice, 
and the justice may prohibit the using of the house till it is. 
rendered habitable. 



THK END. 



I ND 



EX. 



A 

Abatement of Nuisances, 150 
Air-space for Cow, 125 

,, Horse, 123 

„ Man, 81 
Area round House, 31 
Argand Gas Burners, 76 
Arnott's Valve, 85 
Aspect, II 

B 

Bali, Tap, 92 
Bath, 1 08 

Batwing Gas Burners, 76 
Beams, 39 
" Bearing," 40 
Bedroom, 60 

,, Keeping Clean, 130 
Blackbeetles, 136 
Boiler, Hot-water, 99 
Borough Rates, 140 
Bricks, 13 

,, Burning, 15 

,, Colour of, 15 

,, Fire, 16 

,, Heavy, 16 

,, Hollow, 16 

, , Laying, 33 

„ Light, 16 



Bricks, Making by Machinery, 17- 

,, Moulding and Drying, 14. 

,, Tests of Soundness, 17 

,, Ventilating, 16 
Building Materials, 13 
Burning Bricks, 1 5 

,, Tiles, 23 

C 

Ceilings, 118 

,, Decoration of, i 
Cellars, 63 
Cement, 22 
Chimney Shafts, 48 
Cisterns, Separate Service, 92 

„ Store, 90 
Clamps, 15 

Cleaning a House, 129 

Coal Gas, 75 

Colour of Bricks, 1 5 

Complaint to Local Government 

Board, 153 
Concrete Walls, 38 
Conditions of Tenancy, 142 
Construction, 28 
Convection, 65 

Cost of Abating Nuisance, 152. 
Cowhouse and Dairy, 125 
Curtains, 121 



Cutters," i6 
Cylinder, Hot-water, 98 



D 

Dado, 115 

Damp- course, 30 

-Decoration, 113 

>> of Ceilings, 118 
j> of Floors, 117 
)> of Walls, 113 

Desiderata as regards Site, 9 

Design and Arrangement, 49 

Dining-room, 58 

Dirt, Wliere it comes from, 130 

Disconnecting Chamber, 104 
), Trap, 105 

Doors, 44 

Drainage of Land, 11 

Drains, House, 10 1 
Subsoil, loi 
,, Testing, 103 
,, under Basement, 102 

Drawing-room, 59 

Drying Tiles, 23 

Dusting, 131 

Dwelling - house for Clerks and 
Foremen, 53 



E 

Earths used in Brickmaking, 13 
Electric Lighting, 74 
-English Bond, 32 

Examination of House by Sanitary 
Expert, 142 
of Drains, 146 



F 

Facing Bricks, 16 

Filter Cleaning, 94 

Filtering Water, 93 

Filthy Houses to be Purified, 14 

Fire-bricks, 16 

Fish-tail Gas Burners, 76 

Fixtures, 145 

Flashing, 48 

Flemish Bond, 32 

Floors, 38 

M Decoration of, 117 

M Ground, 38 

Unventilated Cavity und 
40 

,, Wood block, 38 
Flues, 33 
Flue Draught, 66 
" Footings," 30 
Foundations, 28 
Fowl-house, 127 
Fresh-air Inlet to Drains, 104 
Furniture, 119 



G 

Galton's Grate, 68 

Gas and Water Rates, 140 

,, Burners, 76 

,, Pressure Governors, 77 

,, Stoves, 72 
Girders, 40 
" Globe " Light, 79 
Grease Trap, 1 10 
Gross Value, 139 
Ground Air, 8 

,, Temperature, 5 



157 



GrounJ Water, 7 
Gully Trap, H2 

H 

Half-timber Walls, 38 

Hall, Passage, and Stairs, Keeping 

Clean, 134 
Hard Water, Softening, 94 
" Heart " in Wood, 27 
Heavy Brick, 16 
" High Pressure," 71 
Hinckes- Bird's Plan of Window 

Ventilation, 43 
Hollow Brick, 16 
„ Wall, 30 
Hot-water Circulating System, 69 

,, Service, 98 
House Drains, loi 

,, must l)e Properly 

Constructed and 
Kept, 14s 
House Letting at ;^5oand upwards, 
58 

House unfit for Habitation, 141 
Housemaid's Work, 130 
Hygiene, Aim of, I 



INCANDESCE^T Electric Lamp, 74 
Inclination of Drains, 102 
Infected Houses and Articles to be 
Disinfected, 149 

J 

Joists, 39 



Joist - ends Cushioned on Woodl 

Plates, 39 
Joists Trimmer, 40 



K 

Kitchen, 61 

,, and Scullery, Keeping; 
Clean, 135 



L 

Labourers* Cottages, Country, 54, 

,, Town, 52 

Land Tax, 140 
Landlord and Tenant, 141 
" Lap" in Slate Roof, 46 
Larder and Store-room, 63 
Laundry, 62 
Lavatory, 108 
Leases, 143 
Library, 60 
Light Brick, 16 
Lighting, 72 
Lime, 21 
Limestone, 19 

Magnesian, 20 
Linen-room, 63 
" Low Pressure," 70 



M 

Mackinnel's Ventilators, 85; 
" Made Land," 9 
Magnesian Limestone, 20 



158 



Alain, Service from, 97 
Mineral Matters in Soil, 6 
Mortar, 21 

Moulding and Drying Bricks, 14 
„ Tiles, 22 



N 

I^ATURAL Ventilation, 82 
Nuisances Defined, 150 
Nurseries, 61 

O 

■Oolite, 20 
Open Grate, 65 
Overcrowding a Nuisance, 150 

P 

Pantry, 63 

Paperhangings, 114 

,1 Flock, 116 

,, Poisonous, 116 

Parapets, 34 

IPiers, 36 

Pigeon Cote, 128 

Piggery, 127 

Plans, Sections, and Elevations, 50 
Poisonous Paperhangings, 1 16 
Pollution of Water in Transit, 90 
Poor Rates, 140 
Portland Cement, 22 
Property Tax, 140 
Public Health Act, 1875, 145 
Public Sewers, Right of Drainage 
into, 145 



Q 

Quine's House-refuse Receptacle 
149 



R 

Radiant Heat, 65 
Rainfall, 7 

Rain Gutters and Pipes, 48 
Rain-water, 88 
Rateable Value, 139 
Rates, 139 

Removal of Refuse, 147 
Requirements of Healthy Dwelling- 

House, 2 
Right of Drainage into Public 

Sewer, 145 
River Water, 88 
Roman Cement, 22 
Roofing, 45 



S 

Sandstone, 18 

Sanitary Requisites, loi 

" Sap " in Wood, 27 

Sanitary Expert, Examination of 

House by, 142 
Scullery, 62 

Separate Service Cisterns, 92 
Service, Hot- water, 98 

.. Pipes, 96 
Sherringham Ventilators, 83 
Sinks, Pantry, 109 

,, Scullery, 109 
Site, 4 

,, Desiderata as regards, 9 



^59 



Sitting-room, Keeping Clean, 132 
Skirting, 41 
Slates, 25 

Slates, Tests of Soundness, 25 

Slate Roofs, 46 

Slope of Roof, 45 

Small Villa Residences, 57 

Smoke Nuisance, 151 

Softening Hard Water, 94 

Soil-pipes, 106 

Sources of Water Supply, 88 

Spring Cleaning, 137 

Stable and Coach-house, 123 

Stairs, 41 

Stone, 18 

„ Natural Bed of Stratified, 37 
Store Cisterns, 90 
Subsoil, 5 

„ Drains, loi 
Supply Pipe, 92 
Surface Soil, 5 
Swan's Electric Lamp, 74 



T 

Taking a House, 141 
Taxes, 139 
Temperature, 4 

„ of Ground, 5 
Tenancy, Conditions of, 142 
Terra Cotta, 24 
Testing Drains, 103 
Tests of Sound Bricks, 17 
„ Slates, 25 

Thickness of Walls, 34 
Tiles, 22 

„ Burning, 23 

„ Drying, 23 



Tiles, Moulding, 22 

Tile Roofs, 46 

Tobin's Tubes, 83 

Tongued and Grooved Flooring, 

41 

Trap, Disconnecting, 105 
Grease, no 
,, Gully, 112 
Trimmers, 40 
Trimmer Joists, 40 

u 

Unventilated Cavities under 
Floors, 40 

V 

Ventilating Biicks, 16 
Ventilation, 79 

,, at Windows, 43 

„ Natural, 82 
Ventilators, Mackinnel's, 85 

,, Muir's, 86 

,, Sherringham's, 85 

,, Watson's, 86 



W 

Walls, 30 

,, Decoration of Room, 113 

,, Half-'.imber, 38 

,, of Concrete, 38 

,, cf Flint or Boulders, 37 



t6d 



Walls of Rough Stone, 37 
,. of Stone backed 

Brick, 37 
)) Thickness of, 34 

Warming, 64 

Warranty, 141 

Water Cisterns, 90 

Water-closets, 106 

Water-filtering, 93 

Water Pollution in Transit, 90 

Water Rates, 140 

Water Service Pipes, 96 
„ Hot, 98 

Water, Softening Hard, 94 

Water-supply Sources, 88 



with 



Well Water, 89 
Windows, 42 

,, Ventilation at, 
Wood, 26 

n Block Floors, 3S 



\ EARLY Tenancies, 143 



Zinc Roofing, 47 



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SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.— Introduction.— Chapter I. Foul Matters, 
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iv 



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''For those Avho are preparing to become Sanitary Officers, or who are, 
for other reasons, desirous of mastering the essentials of sanitary constrnction, 
the book will prove of service."— ^riiis/i Medical Journal. 

" '^.^^ ^^"'■'^ ^^■'^^1 exemplifies the best methods of the present day. . . 
Full of inloruiation and iiarticularly handy for reference." — Lancet. 



Contains TOO Report Forms, with Index, &c. &c. Leather Binding, with 
Elastic Band. Price 3s. 6d. 

The Sanitary Engineer's Pocket Book. 

Compiled by E. A. SANDFORD FAWCETT, A.M.I.C.E., Mem. San. Inst. 
For the use of Sanitary Engineers and Experts in Examining, Testing, and 
Reporting on the Drainage, Water Supply, and General Sanitary Condi- 
tion of Premises. 



Published annually. Price 2s. 6d. Cloth, Gilt. Interleaved throughout 

with Blotting Paper. 

The *' Sanitary Record " Diary and Year 
Book. 

CONTAINS : — Sanitary Legislation of Past Year ; Useful Memoranda for 
Sanitary Engineers and Surveyors ; Directory of Government Depart- 
ments ; Sanitary and Allied Associations, &c. &c. 

PRESS OPINION. 

"Sanitary Inspectors and others will appreciate it, not only for its use 
as a Diary, but because of the varied and valuable amount of information the 
book contains." — Plumber and Decorator, 



xi 



Now Keady. Illustrated. Price Is. 6d. net, I'liper. 

The Student's Guide to Success in Sani= 
tary Inspectors' Examinations. 

By MATTHEW CHAPMAN, Mem. San. Inst. 
Price 2s., by Post 2s. 2d. 

Model Answers to Questions, 

Set by the Sanitary Institute and the Sanitary Association of Scotland. 

PRESS OPINION. 
"A very handy book which cannot fail to be of great service to asi^irants 
for a sanitary inspectorship, and even to those who have already attained 
that position. . . . The answers are given to most of the papers set at 
the various e.xaminations, and are really models of lucidity and correctness. 
Everyone interested in the duties of a sanitary inspector should get a copy, 
which is sold at the low price of two shillings." — Local Government Journal, 



Price Paper, Is. Net, by post Is. Id.; Cloth, Is. 6d. Net, by post Is. 8d 

The Drainage of Villages. 

By WILLIAM SPINKS, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., Member of the Incor- 
porated Association of Municipal and County Engineers; Member of 
Sanitary Institute ; Lecturer on Sanitary Engineering, Yorlcshire College, 
Victoria University ; President of Sanitary Engineering Section of the 
British Institute of Public Health, 1895 

SYNOPSIS OP CONTENTS. -Part L— Statutory Powers-Pollution of 
Streams— In case of Failure to Provide Schemes- Existing Sewers- 
Present Means of Disposal —Composition of Sewage — Self-purifying 
Power of Rivers. Part II.— Areas of District to be Sewered— Power tS 
iinter Private Lands— Works without District— Special Drainage Dis- 
^^^'^"^ neighbouring Authority to take and deal 

T^'*^^~'^°"'* Sewerage Boards-Rainfall— The Geological Cliaracter 
°r w fJiatrict— Present and Prospective Number of Inhabitants- Supply 
of Water— Sanitary Appliances— Position of Outfall Works-Power to 
Purchase Lands -Borrowing Powers. Part III. — Requirements of a 
Sewerage System-Depths-Gradients-Lines-Sewers and their Jointing 
—Manholes— Phishing— Ventilation. Part IV.-Sewage Disposal— Purl- 
fication through Land— Tanks-Sludge-Filtration. 

PRESS OPINIONS. 
''Will be found very useful to those who have to enter upon the pre- 
liminary considerat tns which precede the decision of a parish Council as to 



xu 



Sem ^ef-^i-? it I'li^iehes upon the heavj- expenditure of a drainage 

tvSare ft-eelv ES'^' ""T^°°^ introdnction to other books and reports 
in^tS^^^^^^ -yone .ho has to Lter 

" Should ijrove profitable reading to the student of sanitary science for 
he ™Hjr"'"'^'nf ^"^ information Ibr both the professional Lgh ne 'an. 
It In at l^n wH ' l' 1^"^, ^^"ty- "^^^ ^^-^^Itl^y condition o 

mc^St'JoZ^l f'''''''^^ be a matter of great mon.e'nt."-« 

matnri^r.?,Vr'''r"'"'^':'^f "''S^S'^'^ t'^" conception, 

matunug, and development of village drainage. "-^■A#-cZf^ Independent. 

Crown 8vo., 16 pp. Price 6d. 

Chemical Sanitation and Public Health. 

By WILLIAM BROWN. 
A Paper read at Glasgow Congi'ess of the British Institute of Public Health. 



Price 6d. ; by post, G^d. 

The Purification of Sewage by Bacteria. 

By AETHUR J. MARTIN, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. 
Second Edition. 44 pp.. Large 8vo. Price 6d. ; by post, 6Jd. 

The Elements of Sanitary Law. 

By ALICE RAVENHILL, Lecturer to the National Health Society. 
Assoc. San. Inst. With Introduction by Sir RICHARD T. THORNE, 
K.C.B., F.R.S., LL.D. 

Published for the National Health Society. 

PRESS OPINIONS. 

' ' Will prove of much practical utility to many of our rpaders who are 
debarred by various causes from having recourse to the pages of Glen or 
Lumley." — Surveyor. 

" Eminently qualified to meet a growing demand for some concise and 
inexpensive summary of the leading points in our existing system of Public 
Health Law, some items of the most practical value having been selected and 
presented in a form as simple as is compatible with accuracy, and permitting 
of easy and rapid reference to any particular subject on wliicli information is 
■desired. " — Health. 



XIH 



Price 6J. net. AVith Illustrations, Diagrams, &c. 

Footpaths: Their flaintenance, Construe^ 
tion, and Cost. 

By A; TAYLOR ALLEN, C.E., Engineer and Surveyor, Portslade-on-Sea. 

This little liandbook gives tlie mode of construction of pavings, witli 
approximate cost, and a synopsis of the law relating to existing pavements, 
clauses for specification, model form of tender and specimen quantities, &c. 

PRESS NOTICES. 

" There is a wonderful amount of information of one sort and another 
contained in the thirty odd pages of this small volume. First one reads of 
the laws relating to footpaths and the cleansing, &c., of pavements ; and then 
the different kinds of pavement are reviewed, and the cost of these given. To 
the special class for whom it is intended this book will, without doubt, prove 
of value, and many another will be glad to have a book containing the infor- 
mation which this gives." — The Engineer. 

" This little sixpenny book should be in the hands of every Municipal 
Engineer, Surveyor, and Architect." — The Buildimj Nexos. 



Price 6d. by post 6^d. 

House Drainage Diagrams. 

By W. SPINKS, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. 

The Slieet, 31in by 22in., embraces all details required by the Local 

Government Board Model Bye-laws. 
Special quotations for large numbers taken by Local Authorities direct. 



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Lighting, Heating, and CooI<ing. 

A Practical Treatise useful to everybody. 



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Examinations for Local Surveyors. 

Questions with Answers. 



xiv 



Price 4(1., Tost Fiee. 

Notes on the Factory and Workshop Acts, 
1878, 1891, and 1895. 

By D. S. DAVIES, M.D., D.P.H., M.O.H., Bristol, ami T. H. YABBICUM, 
A.M.I.C.E., ami City Engineer, Bristol. 



Price Threepence, by Post 3Jd. 

Practical Smoke Prevention. 

By W. NICHOLSON, Smoke Inspector, Sheffield. 

This little booklet, from a practical pen, deals iu a comprehensive and 
capable way with a problem in which most of our big towns and cities 
are concerned. Its reasonable price should enable it to bo distributed 
wholesale in quarters where the lesson it inculcates would be appreciated, 
and so distributed, it cannot fail to be productive of much good. 

PRESS OPINIONS. 

"A very useful little book, which will be found very instructive to 
engineers and all having care of steam boilers." — Liverpool Daily Post. 

" There is no nonsense about this pamphlet. It goes to the root of the 
matter. The smoke nuisance can be remedied, and the remedy is in the 
liands of workmen themselves. Mr. Nicholson as an authority proves this 
conclusively." — Lancaster Standard. 



Impoi-tant to all Medical Officers of Health. Important Booklet for 
circulation among the masses. 

The Cry of the Children in the XXth 
Century. 

By Mrs. BRAY. With extracts from Mrs. Gakuvtt Andekson's letter to 

The Times. 

A convincing, pathetic, and timely appeal to the common-sense of the 
community on the Vaccination Question. Supplied to Local Authorities at 



6s. per 100. Specimen copy sent post free to auy Medical Officer of Health 
or Sanitary Inspector on application. 

PRESS OPINIONS. 

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" The tale is told with much natural power and feeling, and the little 
tract should be most useful in counteracting the evil influences of anti-vac- 
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general distribution." — The British Medical Journal. 



The Sanitary Record and Journal of Sani- 
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Price 3d. weekly. Post free 12s. 6d. per annum. 



8 pp. Second Edition. 

Facts Concerning Vaccination. 

Issued by the National Health Society. 



PRESS OPINION. 



It IS a useful leaflet, and states briefly and in simple langua<Je most of 
the leadmg facts about vaccination as a preventive of small-pox The leaflet 
is intended for local distribution, and has on its front page spaces for the 
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c .''r IS fiPPlic'iat 9d. per dozen, 5s. per 100, and 21s. per 1000 "— 
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